K'ang-hsi

K'ang-hsi

(käng shē), 1654–1722, 2d emperor of the Ch'ing dynasty of China (1661–1722). He extended Manchu control and promoted learning in the arts and sciences. K'ang-hsi conquered the feudatories of S China (1673–81), took Taiwan (1683), established China's first diplomatic relations with Russia (1689), and pushed the Ölöds from Outer Mongolia (1697). Repeated tax reductions, attention to water conservation, and imperial tours of inspection earned him a reputation for benevolence. He employed Jesuit missionaries to map the empire and to teach mathematics and astronomy.

Bibliography

See study by J. D. Spence (1974).

References in periodicals archive ?
(1.) Comparative analytical catalogue of the Kanjur division of Tibetan Tripitaka edited in Peking during the K'ang-hsi era, and at present kept in the library of the Otani Daigaku, Kyoto.Part 1-3.1930-32, Otani Daigaku library, Kyoto.
Slight inaccuracies concerning Fang's early career and his involvement in the persecution of Tai Ming-shih do not detract from Guy's perceptive observations, through Fang Pao, about changing relations between emperors and their chief scholar-servitors during the late K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, and early Ch'ien-lung periods.
In "Learning Mathematical Sciences during the Early and Mid-Ch'ing," Catherine Jami explicates the rise of interest in mathematics in the late Ming and early Ch'ing and outlines an evolution in Chinese attitudes toward Western knowledge during that period, showing how the indigenous and European methods in mathematics were syncretized during the K'ang-hsi reign.
Shun-chih's six-year-old son was given the title of K'ang-hsi; he was to become the greatest of Ching emperors.
A comet in the sky, then an earthquake on the very day when the judgement was submitted to the young K'ang-Hsi and the dowager grandmother for approval, and a few days later a fire in the palace, betrayed the disapproval of heaven.
Another section, 'The Confucian Impulse', moves from an application of Shakespeare's seven ages of man to the life of the emperor K'ang-hsi (1654-1722), to a consideration of the world in which his contemporary, the poet Tao-chi (1641-c.1720), lived and worked.
Born in 1644, he was the son of the chieftain of the Western Mongols (Kalmuks or Dzungars) Eleventh tribe; aspired to re-create the Mongol empire in Central Asia; conquered Kashgar (Kaxgar) and later all of Turkestan (1679); became khan of the Dzungars, or Western Mongols; invaded Outer Mongolia and routed the Eastern Mongols (1687); attempted to gain an alliance with the Russians but was frustrated by Chinese diplomacy; invaded Outer Mongolia again at the head of 30,000 men, but was defeated outside Ulan Bator (Ulaanbaatar) by a Chinese army of 80,000 under the personal command of Ch'iang Emperor K'ang-hsi; defeated again by Chinese troops led by the Emperor at Jao Modo in Turkestan (Urga, Uzbek S.S.R.) (1696), he committed suicide the following year (1697).
K'ang-hsi was an unusually conscientious and dilignet ruler, frequently touring the provinces; he strove to maintain an honest, efficient, and just civil administration; he rose before dawn and worked late, finding time to be a patron of scholarship, music, painting, and calligraphy; a ruler of exceptionally broad interests, he regarded learning as the basis of sound government; more than any other man he transformed Ch'ing rule from a precarious foreign military occupation of China to sound and stable civil authority.
Spence, Jonathan D., Ts'ao Yin and the K'ang-hsi Emperor, Bondservant and Master.