Quiché

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Quiché

(kēchā`), indigenous peoples of Mayan linguistic stock, in the western highlands of Guatemala; most important group of the ancient southern MayaMaya
, indigenous people of S Mexico and Central America, occupying an area comprising the Yucatán peninsula and much of the present state of Chiapas in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, parts of El Salvador, and extreme western Honduras.
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. The largest of the contemporary native groups of Guatemala, numbering over a million, they live principally in the region between QuezaltenangoQuezaltenango
, city (1994 est. pop. 90,801), SW Guatemala. The city is the metropolis of the western highlands (it is 7,500 ft/2,286 m above sea level) and the second city of Guatemala. The city has much diversified light industry, including textile manufacturing and brewing.
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 and ChichicastenangoChichicastenango
, town, SW Guatemala. In the heart of the highlands, Chichicastenango was a trading town in ancient times. It became the spiritual center of the Quiché after their defeat (1524) by Pedro de Alvarado.
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. From their origins, as told in the Popol VuhPopol Vuh
[Quiché,=collection of the council], sacred book of the Quiché. The most important document of the cosmogony, religion, mythology, migratory traditions, and history of the Quiché, the original Popol Vuh was destroyed by the Spanish conquistador
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, the Quiché have retained many ancient traditions, blending them with Western customs to create a distinctive mode of life. Pedro de AlvaradoAlvarado, Pedro de
, 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico.
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, with the help of the Cakchiquel or Kakchiquel, a neighboring but rival group similar in language and stock, conquered them in 1524. However, the Quiché waged periodic uprisings against both the Spanish and, later, the Guatemalan government. During the political upheaval of the 1970s and 80s in Guatemala, many Quiché fled the country for Mexico and the United States. Studies of modern Quiché communities include Ruth Bunzel, Chichicastenango (1952) and Manning Nash, Machine Age Maya (1958).

Bibliography

See also R. M. Carmack, Quichean Civilization (1973).

Quiché

 

an Indian people in Guatemala. Population, approximately 580,000 persons (1967, estimate). The Quiche comprise more than 90 percent of the population in the departments of Totonicapán, Quiche, and Suchitepéquez. They also live in the departments of Quezaltenango, Solóla, Baja Verapaz, and Retalhuleu.

The Quiche language belongs to the Maya-Zoque languages. The official religion is Catholicism, although many pre-Christian beliefs are maintained. An early class state of the Quiche existed before the Spanish conquest. Its chief city was Cumarcah (Utatlán). The Quiche put up fierce resistance against the Spaniards. The chief occupation of the Quiche is farming; a significant number of them engage in seasonal work on coffee plantations. Well-developed handicrafts include weaving and pottery-making.

Quiche

(dreams)

For the Quiche Maya, a patrilineal and patrilocal people located in twenty-six different communities across Guatemala, ancestors are important beings whose visitation in a dream is most often described as a positive experience, although they may demand appeasement in the form of religious rituals and eventual initiation into a religious organization. Human beings are classified as winak, and are distinguished from nonhumans by the feature of articulate speech. In addition, each individual possesses one of twenty faces or destinies (or “life-souls”), depending on the person’s day of birth on the Mayan calendar. The life-soul arrives at the moment of birth, is located in the heart, and if it should leave the body for any reason for any length of time, the person will die.

A close connection is believed to exist between dreaming and dying, since, when one dreams, one’s face or destiny leaves the body as if one were dead. For the Quiche, it is the free-soul, not the life-soul that wanders, which makes dreaming a less threatening experience. Quiche express little anxiety about dreaming, and in their language the verb for dreaming is transitive, indicating that the dreamer is conscious while dreaming.

According to the principal Quiche theory of dreams, the dreamer’s free-soul, after leaving the body and wandering about in the world, meets other people’s and animals’ free-souls. Additionally, the Quiche claim that the gods or ancestors approach the sleeping dreamer’s body and awaken his soul, which is supposed to struggle with the visitors until they give the dreamer a message. The dream experience is usually described as a nightly struggle between the dreamer’s free-soul and the free-souls of the deities and ancestors, who have important messages concerning the future of people. The Quiche insist that everyone dreams every night, and daily sharing or reporting of all dreams, whether evaluated by the dreamer as good or bad, is considered an important practice. All dreams are treated as immediately and necessarily open to reporting and interpretation.

References in periodicals archive ?
12) En orden jerarquico, los Senores de los linajes k'iche eran los siguientes: Ajpop, "el de la estera", el principal; Ajpop K'amja, el "receptor de le estera", canciller o receptor del poder; Ajtojil, el encargado del culto a Tojil; Ajq'ukumatz, el encargado del culto a Q'ukumatz; Nim Ch'okoj Kaweq, el "principal de los maestros de ceremonias de los Kaweq; Popol Winaq chi T'uy, probable mente "ministro tesorero"; Lolmet Kejnay, el "recolector de impuestos"; Popol Winaq pa Jom Tzalatz, el "ministro de deportes"; y Uchuch K'amja, la "asesora" o "consejera de cancilleria" (Popol Wuj, op.
Tz'utujil songmen create their songs in parallel verse, and since K'iche and Tz'utujil languages are quite similar, common words, phrases, and lines are easy to identify.
K'iche expression of wellness and illness in disputed fields of care: A comparative analysis of Maya intra-cultural therapeutic and cross-cultural biomedical care.
She confesses the limitations confronted albeit as a K'iche woman "with relative privileges," as she comprehends that even this status does not confer or ensure seamless open access to operating with the indigenous/campesino organizations or with the women she will study.
Los guerreros de Quauhquechollan que participaron en la conquista de Guatemala como aliados de Jorge de Alvarado, tuvieron como oponentes a los mayas K'iche y K'akchiquel, representantes de unas culturas muy avanzadas (Asselbergs 2002).
During the civil war in Guatemala in the 1980s, many K'iche Mayans in the town of Xinxuc, in the El Quiche highlands, fled the genocide of natives by immigrating to Providence, Rhode Island.
Asi mismo, de la mano de este fenomeno literario, pero desde distintos paises y desde distintas lenguas, comenzaran a escucharse voces indigenas a lo largo de todo el continente: Elicura Chihuailaf (mapuche de Chile), Humberto Ak'abal (maya k'iche de Guatemala), Ariruma Kowii (quichua de Ecuador), Jorge Cocom Pech (maya yucateco de Mexico), Miguel Angel Lopez (wayuu de Colombia) y Briceida Cuevas Cob (maya) seran algunos de ellos (7).
Elder leaders in Q'eqchi', Achi, Ixil, Kanjobal, K'iche, and Q'aqchiquel communities (where I conducted fieldwork) commonly began the history of their communities within their lived experience of land struggles and confrontations with the state dating back to the near 14-year dictatorship of General Jorge Ubico, which ended in 1944.
En 1996, en Guardian de la caida del agua, y luego en el ano 2004, en Grito (Raqonchi'aj), Ak'abal vuelve sobre uno de los poemas que mejor aclara el "compromiso" del poeta k'iche (1) con su pueblo (2004: 192):
Si bien algunos de estos elementos parecen recurrir a generos orales mayas --por ejemplo, debe resaltarse la existencia de un patron de percusion para el tun (tambor de madera maya) que acompanaba al baile y narrativa historica k'iche Rabinal Achi, (11) y la insercion de las silabas ay ay a la mitad y al final de una de las estrofas del canto ocho de Dzitbalche --los paralelos entre los generos nahuas y zapotecos aqui analizados son relativamente estrechos.
Greg Grandin has shown that through much of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Quetzalteca K'iche elite used both their privileges within an ethnic identity and a ready embrace of the structures of modernity and nationalism to defend their economic and political positions against non-elite K'iche and local Ladino elite.
De Villa told stories of parties honoring patron saints of Guatemalan hamlets that drew thousands of immigrants in Los Angeles; of an illiterate Mayan woman seated in front of a TV and VCR her son brought from the United States, watching a video of him in California; of parabolic antennas and cable TV in tiny highland communities; of a woman whose son sent her so many appliances, they did not fit in her tiny, rural shack; of a community of 5,000 inhabitants of a tiny highland town called Salcaja living outside of Chicago; of a Mayah family living in Canada that speaks two languages -- English and K'iche.