potassium chloride

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potassium chloride,

chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely resembles common salt (sodium chloride). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral sylvite and is found combined in many minerals and in brines and ocean water. It is recovered (with other compounds) from the brine of Searles Lake in California. It is produced from sylvinite, a sodium chloride–potassium chloride mineral that is mined extensively near Carlsbad, N.Mex., and it is refined by fractional crystallization and by a flotation process. It is also recovered from lake brines in Utah and from ores in Saskatchewan, Canada. The chief use of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizersfertilizer,
organic or inorganic material containing one or more of the nutrients—mainly nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, and other essential elements required for plant growth.
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; it is also used in chemical manufacture. For agricultural use it is often called muriate of potash; the concentration of potassium chloride in muriate of potash is expressed as a corresponding concentration of potassium oxide (K2O), i.e., the concentration of potassium oxide that there would be if the potassium were present as its oxide instead of as its chloride. Thus, muriate of potash that contains (typically) 80% or 97% KCl by weight is said to contain 50% or 60% K2O, respectively. Manure salts contain some potassium chloride.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Potassium Chloride


KC1, a salt; colorless crystals. Density, 1.989 g/cm3; melting point, 768°C. Solubility, 34.7 g per 100 g H2O at 20°C (56.6 g at 100°C).

Potassium chloride occurs in nature as sylvite. Natural sylvinite (a mixture of sylvite, KC1, and halite, NaCl) and the mineral carnallite, KCl⋅MgCl2⋅6H2O, serve as the raw material in the the preparation of potassium chloride. Potassium chloride is used as a potassium fertilizer and as a raw material for the preparation of other potassium salts and potassium hydroxide. In medicine, potassium chloride solutions are used internally or intravenously for conditions accompanied by potassium deficiency (for example, during treatment with certain preparations or after persistent vomiting) and for cases of cardiac arrhythmia. [ll–639–4]

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

potassium chloride

[pə′tas·ē·əm ′klȯr‚īd]
(inorganic chemistry)
KCl Colorless crystals with saline taste; soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol; melts at 776°C; used as a fertilizer and in photography and pharmaceutical preparations. Also known as potassium muriate.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
(11) After Schering appealed the FTC's ruling, the Eleventh Circuit reversed on grounds that Schering had the right to exclude competitors as the K-Dur patent holder, and that public policy favors settlement of costly litigation.
Wholly independent of the FTC's complaint, a group of wholesalers and retailers that purchased K-Dur directly also filed suit under antitrust law for the alleged illegality of Schering's settlement agreements with Upsher and ESI.
Supporters of K-Dur say it will bring generic drugs to market faster, saving consumers (and health insurers) billions of dollars annually.
Sorensen represented some of the plaintiffs in K-Dur.
Upsher said that Schering's claim of infringement was baseless and was brought in bad faith, nonetheless, Upsher settled with Schering on the eve of trial and agreed to abandon its plans to market a generic K-Dur.
In re: K-Dur Antitrust Litigation is the first court of appeals opinion to reject the "scope of the patent" test embraced in earlier decisions by three other courts of appeals.
The effect of these agreements, the FTC alleged in an antitrust case filed against Schering and the generics, was to "restrain competition unreasonably and to injure competition by preventing or discouraging entry of generic K-Dur 20 products."
Under this agreement, Upsher-Smith would sell neither the product for which it had filed with the FDA, nor any other generic version of K-Dur 20 (without regard to whether Schering had any basis to claim infringement), until September 2001.
"We stand by our procompetitive agreement, which enables us to bring another affordable alternative for K-Dur to market on a date nearly five years prior to its patent expiration," he says.
In 1995 Upsher-Smith and ESI Lederle each filed Abbreviated New Drug Applications (ANDAs) with the Food and Drug Administration seeking to market generic versions of K-Dur. Schering-Plough brought separate actions against each company, claiming that their products infringed on the patent for a novel formulation Schering-Plough has for the product.
"As demonstrated by Schering-Plough's apparent decision not to file a Paragraph IV suit against our generic K-Dur, our ANDA product employs distinctively different drug delivery technologies than does the Schering-Plough product," comments Chui-Ming Chen, cochairman and chief scientific officer of Andrx.
charges institutional pharmacy providers $2.03 for 100 capsule of K-Dur (potassium chloride USP), community retail pharmacies pay $27.31 for the same drug in the same quantity a markup of 1.245%.