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the Japanese decorative art of flower arrangement
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the art of flower arranging, popular in Japan. Often the bouquet itself, if put together in keeping with the rules, is called ikebana. The art of ikebana originated in the 15th century as part of the ritual of the tea ceremony.

Ikebana has three main components: the natural material (flowers, tree branches, leaves, or conifer needles), the vase, and the kendzan (a device for strengthening the stem and keeping it in the desired position). The ikebana composition is determined by the three main branches (or flowers), which have a symbolic meaning: the tall branch symbolizes the sky; the middle branch, man; and the bottom branch, the earth. The basic aesthetic principle of ikebana is refined simplicity, achieved by bringing out the natural beauty of the material, which determines the bouquet’s asymmetrical composition and contrasting colors and textures. The arrangement is usually placed in a special niche, the tokonoma, and not only creates a bright decorative effect, but also sets the emotional tone for an interior.

Ikebana has a large number of divisions— rikka, or standing flowers (17th century); shoka, or live-flower style (18th century); moribana, or the “piling up” (19th century); zeugata, or the free style (20th century); and zeneibana, the avant-garde style (20th century). There are schools teaching the principles of ikebana; the most popular at present is the Sogetsu school, led by Sofu Teshigahara.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Deputy Commissioner Hunza Baber Sahib Din lauded the efforts of KADO for uplifting the socio-economic condition of the disadvantaged segment of the society.
William Chang, (3) Sarah Kado, (2) Kelly McCulloh, (2) Helena Vogel, (2) Dalei Wu, (2) Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann, (4) GuoXiang Yang, (5) Patrick S.C.
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Besides these there are other dishes such as Corn Soup, Kabab Narejaki, Qatqab, Polani, Halim, Polow Zireh, Arzeh Polow, Reshteh Farangi Polow, along with different Khoreshts like Kangar, Bamiyeh, Kado Halva and Gojeh farangi Khoreshts.
See Dian Maharani, "BP Migas Bubar, Kado Terindah untuk Muhammadiyah" [BP Migas is dissolved, a Beautiful Present for Muhammadiyah], Kompas.com, 15 November 2012, available at <http://tekno.kompas.com/ read/2012/11/15/19352778/bp.migas.bubar.kado.terindah.untuk.muhammadiyah>.
24 June 2014: Merlin Chappuis, Scott Cichowlas, William Couture, Jana De Moyer, Laura Figurski, Scott Fleming, Nicholas James, Chris Kado, Benjamin Light, Jason Lorenzetti, Timothy Parker, Patrick Robinson, Rebecca Russell, Harmanpreet Singh, Ryan Stevenson, Dana Welch.
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(1) A white European man travels to a high school in Kado, a town in an unspecified African state that has just gained independence, and is charged with educating his newly liberated students on the joys of non-conformism and independent thought.
BUNER -- Deputy Commissioner Mushtaq Ahmad Khan through a letter directed various leading NGOs including Save the Children, KADO, RDO, RAHBAR, EPS, SPO, ADO, NDF, LFA, HADAF and RDP to forthwith stop work in Buner district as they had no NOC from the PDMA and were not doing anything useful for the district.