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(kəlyē'nyĭn-grät`), formerly


city (1989 pop. 401,000), capital of Kaliningrad region, an exclave of W European Russia; on the Pregolya River near its mouth on the Vislinski Zalev, which empties into the Gulf of Kaliningrad on the Baltic Sea. Russia's only ice-free N European seaport and naval base, and an industrial, fishing, and commercial center, Kaliningrad has industries that produce ships, railroad cars, motor vehicles, and machinery and process food, fish, and wood. There are significant amber deposits nearby. The city has an institute of oceanography and botanical and zoological gardens. It is the home of the Russian Baltic fleet.

The city was founded (1255) as a fortress of the Teutonic KnightsTeutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
, German military religious order founded (1190–91) during the siege of Acre in the Third Crusade. It was originally known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem.
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 by King Ottocar II of Bohemia, whom the former name of Königsberg supposedly honors. It joined (1340) the Hanseatic LeagueHanseatic League
, mercantile league of medieval German towns. It was amorphous in character; its origin cannot be dated exactly. Originally a Hansa was a company of merchants trading with foreign lands.
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 and became (1457) the seat of the grand master of the Teutonic Order after the knights lost Marienburg to Poland. It was the residence of the dukes of Prussia from 1525 until the union (1618) of Prussia and Brandenburg and became (1701) the coronation city of the kings of Prussia.

The Univ. of Königsberg (founded 1544) reached its greatest fame when KantKant, Immanuel
, 1724–1804, German metaphysician, one of the greatest figures in philosophy, b. Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia). Early Life and Works
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 (who was born and lived his entire life at Königsberg) taught there. The university building, the 14th-century cathedral, and most of the old city were severely damaged by fighting in World War II. As part of the northern section of East Prussia, the city was transferred to the USSR in 1945, and the German population was expelled. The city (renamed Kaliningrad for Mikhail KalininKalinin, Mikhail Ivanovich
, 1875–1946, Russian revolutionary. Of peasant origin, he was active in revolutionary affairs from his youth. He became the first chairman of the central executive committee of the USSR, or titular head of state (1919–46), and was a member
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 in 1946) was rebuilt after 1945, although the old castle was demolished; the population became almost entirely Russian. The site of a number of military facilities, the region was largely closed to outsiders during the cold war. In the 1990s, ethnic Germans from other parts of the former Soviet Union began moving to the city. The city and region suffered economically after the breakup of the Soviet Union, which isolated the region from the rest of Russia. From 1996 to 2016 the region was a special economic zone, but the growth based on trade that resulted was reversed when tensions between Russia and the West led to sanctions and countersanctions in the 2010s.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(before July 4, 1946, Königsberg; renamed in honor of M. I. Kalinin), a city and administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, RSFSR, situated on both banks of the Pre-golia River at the point where it flows into the Vistula Lagoon of the Baltic Sea. Kaliningrad is a major hub of transport and industry, with a port that is open year round and a deep-water channel linking it with the Baltic at the port of Baltiisk. Population, 315, 000 (1972; 1959, 204, 000).

The city was founded in 1255. For 700 years it was a base of German feudal aggression, and later imperialist aggression, against the peoples of Poland and Russia. During the first and second world wars (1914–18 and 1939–45) it was used by the German military machine as a springboard for offensives against neighboring states.

During the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union (1941–45), troops of the Third Byelorussian Front, under the command of A. M. Vasilevskii, took the city (on Apr. 6–10, 1945, as part of the East Prussian Campaign of 1945). By decision of the Potsdam Conference of 1945, Königsberg and its adjacent territory (approximately one-third of what was formerly East Prussia) went to the USSR.

More than 90 percent of the city was destroyed as a result of the fierce fighting during the attack. The transportation network of the city, its water-supply and sewage systems, and its power systems were among the facilities destroyed. Soviet men and women built a new socialist city in a short time, with highly developed industry, modern municipal services, and an extensive network of cultural and educational institutions.

Fishing, the paper and cellulose industry, machine building, and metalworking are important in the city’s economy. The largest enterprises in the city include railroad-car construction and ship repair and plants producing construction machinery, road-building machinery, electric welding equipment, tower cranes, spare parts for motor vehicles, and commercial machinery. Other large enterprises are a plant producing equipment for paper and woodworking enterprises, plants producing reinforced-concrete units, two paper and cellulose combines, a coke-oven gas plant, a fish cannery combine, a packaging plant, and a meat-packing combine. The Iurii Dolgorukii whaling fleet and a fishing fleet are based in Kaliningrad.

Approximately one-third of the city’s territory is occupied by parks, boulevards, gardens, and reservoirs. Since 1953 the reconstruction of the city has proceeded according to a master plan. A new master plan was introduced in 1967 by a collective under the leadership of M. R. Naumov and I. G. Loginova. At the center of the city is Pobeda Square, with a monument to V. I. Lenin (1958, bronze and granite; sculptor, V. B. Topuridze). On Gvardeiiskii Prospect there is a monument to the 1, 200 guardsmen who fell in the attack on Königsberg (1945–46; sculptors, J. Mikenas and B. J. Pundzius; architects, S. S. Nanush’ian and I. D. Mel’chakov). A monument of bronze and granite to M. I. Kalinin was erected in 1959 (sculptor, B. V. Edunov; architect, A. V. Guliaev). Earlier monuments that were preserved in the city include that of F. Schiller (1910; sculptor, K. Kauer) and the grave of I. Kant.

Kaliningrad has a university, a technical institute of fishingand the fishing industry, a higher naval-engineering school, theAtlantic Scientific Research Institute of Fishing and Oceanogra-phy, and eight specialized secondary educational institutions.There is a museum of local lore, a drama theater, a puppettheater, a television station, a philharmonic orchestra, and apublishing house. There are seaside climatic health resorts nearthe city (Svetlogorsk, Otradnoe, Zelenogradsk, Pionerskii). Kal-iningrad was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labor in1971.



a city in Moscow Oblast, RSFSR, a railroad station (Podlipki) on the Mytishchi-Monino branch line, 22 km northeast of Moscow. Population, 110, 000 (1972).

Kaliningrad originated as a settlement in 1928 and became a city in 1938. In 1960 it was merged with the town of Kostino. It is one of the most well designed cities of the Moscow area in the provision of public services and amenities, with an abundance of greenery along with multistory residential and public buildings built according to standardized designs. The city has a mechanical-engineering technicum and a museum in a house where Lenin stayed between Jan. 17 and Mar. 1, 1922, on a sovkhoz in the village of Kostino (both the sovkhoz and the village are now considered part of the city of Kaliningrad).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


a port in W Russia, on the Pregolya River: severely damaged in World War II as the chief German naval base on the Baltic; ceded to the Soviet Union in 1945 and is now Russia's chief Baltic naval base. Pop.: 436 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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