Kalka


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kalka

 

(present-day Kal’chik), a tributary of the Kal’mius River which flows through the territory of the present-day Donets Oblast, Ukrainian SSR. Here on May 31, 1223, the first battle took place between Russian and Cuman troops on the one hand and the Mongol-Tatar troops of Jebe and Subutai on the other.

The Russian troops gathered in April, crossed the Dnieper near the cataracts, and smashed the Mongol-Tatar vanguard, which began a hasty retreat, intending to draw the Russians within range of the main Mongol-Tatar forces. Disagreements broke out among the Russian princes. The Galician prince Mstislav the Bold, the Volynian prince Daniil, and the Cumans proceeded to cross the Kalka while the other princes remained on the western bank. The main Mongol-Tatar forces defeated the Cuman and Galician-Volynian regiments, which fled across the Dnieper, and then besieged the camp of Mstislav of Kiev. Mstis-lav yielded after three days, believing the promises of the Mongols to allow him and his warriors to return home. The Mongol-Tatar forces treacherously violated their promise, and all the Russian captives were annihilated.

In 1380 a battle took place on the Kalka between the khan of the Golden Horde, Toktamish, and the military leader (tem-nik) Mamai, who were contesting for supreme power. The battle ended in the defeat of Mamai.

REFERENCES

Ocherki istorii SSSR: Period feodalizma, IX-XVvv, vol. 1. Moscow, 1953.
Pashuto, V. T. Geroicheskaia hor’ba russkogo naroda za nezavisimosV(XIII vek). Moscow, 1956.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Those who have been injured and the families of those who have been killed in this latest accident on the Kalka to Shimla line will want to know what caused this terrible accident and will no doubt hope that lessons will be learned which will reduce the risk of another accident like this happening in the future."
Competing against his fellow mechanics, Kalka Prasad excelled in all the games, winning 3 rounds.
The train was on its way to Kalka, in the foothills of the Himalayas, from Howrah, a station near Kolkata in eastern India, when 12 coaches and the engine left the tracks at Malwan station, senior railway official AK Jain said.
The bride was attended by her cousin Kristi Tullos of Ellensburg, Washington, maid of honor, and matrons of honor Lauren Kalka of Jackson and Angel Jeff of Atlanta, Georgia, sister-in-laws of the bride and groom.
The authors (affiliations not cited) outline the origins of the campaign, recount the defeat of the Russians at the Kalka River, and discuss the consequences for Europe of the Mongol victory.
Kalka said earlier that "if Miele comes, we may have a positive domino again."
Ben Kalka, a prisoner at Terminal Island, Calif., filed an unsuccessful administrative appeal because of such problems.
Summary: Panchkula (Haryana) [India], Aug 18 (ANI): Union Defence Minister Rajnath Singh on Sunday flagged off Bharatiya Janata Party's "Jan Ashirwad Yatra" in Kalka to drum up support for the party in view of the coming Assembly elections.
TWO UK nationals were killed and nine others injured as a chartered train enroute to Shimla derailed just minutes after departing from Kalka.
This coupled with the township's idyllic location, on a plateau surrounded by hills and forests in the Pinjore Kalka Urban Complex Sector 3, near Chandimandir Cantonment, makes it truly desirable."
Nearly 12 coaches and the engine of the Kalka Mail, which runs from eastern Howrah to northern Kalka town, jumped the tracks near Malwa station in the Fatehpur district of northern India's Uttar Pradesh state.
Attending the ceremony were Bob and Janet Kalka, parents of the bride, of Magee; Jean Jeff, mother of the groom, of Clinton; and Robert and Lauren Kalka, brother and sister-in-law of the bride, of Jackson.