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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the language of the Kalmyks. It is related to the Mongolian language group. It has two dialects, Torgut and Derbet. Kalmyk is spoken in the Kalmyk ASSR, Stavropol’ Krai, and Astrakhan, Rostov, and Volgograd oblasts. There are approximately 126, 000 Kalmyk speakers in the USSR (1970 census). Kalmyk is also spoken by about 60, 000 persons in the People’s Republic of China (1953–54 census).

Kalmyk phonetics is characterized by long and short vowels; vowel harmony is preserved. Kalmyk nouns are inflected for number and for ten cases. There is no category of gender. Adjectives do not agree with nouns. Verbs have categories of aspect, voice, mood, tense, person, and number. The earliest lexical borrowings into Kalmyk were Greek, Arabic, and Sanskrit, which found their way into the language through Sogdian, Uighur, and Tibetan. Modern borrowings come primarily from and through Russian. The Kalmyks used the Mongolian vertical script until the middle of the 17th century (1648), when it was replaced by the Zaya-Pandita writing system. The Russian alphabet was introduced in 1924. The writing system was based on the Roman alphabet from 1931 to 1938, when the Russian-based orthography was reintroduced.


Sanzheev, G. D. Grammatika kalmytskogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1940.
Badmaev, B. B. Grammatika kalmytskogo iazyka: Morfologiia. Elista, 1966.
Ochirov, U. U. Grammatika kalmytskogo iazyka: Sintaksis. Elista, 1964.
Russko-kalmytskii slovar\ Edited by I. Ilishkin. Moscow, 1964.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Once the plunder of the city was complete, and the Germans considered the Poles sufficiently punished for having risen against the occupation, they took from the Cossacks and Kalmuks their looted valuables and sent them to other fronts.
In the Turkic area they are associated with Kalmuk Taengri, in the Uralic area with Ukko and Tiermes, in the Indo-European area with Laume (in the Baltic region), Iris, 'Old Woman' (in the Romance and Slavic regions) and Soslan in Ossetian, often together with 'bow', 'belt' or 'ribbon'.
With quivering chests and arms and stylized patterns, three men in tightly knit formation simulated the takeoff and soaring flight of eagles in the stunning, abstract Kalmuk Dance.
A haunting gradation etches the portraits of Austrian soldiers destroyed in gangrenous trenches in Moslem desert territory either by poison gas released from the floating Hindenburg airship or by Soviet bullets meant for Kalmuk and Chechen nomads swarming for access to the basics of statehood and security.
Five years after New Westminster's diocesan synod first considered whether homosexual relationships may be blessed in church, Michael Kalmuk, 49, and Kelly Montfort, 62, received the first authorized blessing on May 28 at St.
His brand new Kalmuk album may well gain him sales to the classical market.
Kalmuk is a piece for Kimmo's Kluster trio and the Tapiola Sinfonietta, one of Finland's leading new music ensembles.