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a breed of beef cattle. Kalmyk cattle were developed by prolonged improvement of cattle brought by nomadic Kalmyk tribes from Western Mongolia about 350 years ago. The breed is noted for its strong constitution and good proportions. The body is of medium length, the chest broad and deep, the withers broad, the spine straight and broad, the rump broad, the legs strong and thin. The color is red of various shades, sometimes with white markings, mottled-red, more rarely rust-colored and mottled-brown. The weight of bulls is 600–800 kg, of cows 420–450 kg. The cattle are not particular about fodder and living conditions; they use winter pastures well, fatten rapidly in the spring and autumn, and maintain their weight well during summer droughts and long winterings. They are distinguished by their ability to fatten rapidly at a young age. By the age of 1 1/2 young bulls left for breeding weigh 450–550 kg, steers 380–420 kg. Fattened steers 16–18 months old yield a carcass with a weight of 190–220 kg. The dressed weight is 57–60 percent. The meat has excellent flavor. Milk yield of the cows is 650–1,000 kg per year. The butterfat content of the milk is 4. 2–4. 4 percent. Bullocks are used as work animals. The Kalmyk breed is raised in the Kalmyk ASSR, Stavropol’ Krai, and Rostov, Astrakhan, Aktiubinsk, and Dzhambul oblasts.
REFERENCESSkotovodstvo: Krupnyi rogatyi shot, vol. 1. Moscow, 1961.
Narmaev, M. B. Kalmytskii shot i ego sovershenstvovanie. Elista, 1963.