Kalmykia


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Kalmykia

or

Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh,

constituent republic (1990 est. pop. 329,000), c.29,400 sq mi (76,150 sq km), SE European Russia, on the Caspian Sea. Elista is the capital.

Land and People

Lying mostly in the vast depression of the N Caspian lowland, Kalmykia is largely a steppe and desert area. There are salt lakes but no permanent waterways. Stock raising (horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and some pigs and camels) is by far the leading economic activity, and fishing is important. Irrigation has made limited agriculture possible; winter wheat, corn, and fodder crops are grown. Industry revolves primarily around the processing of agricultural products, fish, and minerals. The population is primarily Kalmyk (45%) and Russian (37%). Buddhism and Orthodox Christianity are the main official religions. The republic has a 130-member parliament.

History

A seminomadic branch of the Oirat Mongols, the Kalmyks migrated from Chinese Turkistan to the steppe W of the Volga's mouth in the mid-17th cent. They became allies of the Russians and were charged by Peter I with guarding the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire. Under Catherine II, however, the Kalmyks became vassals. In 1771 about 300,000 Kalmyks E of the Volga set out to return to China but were decimated en route by Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz attacks. The Kalmyks west of the Volga remained in Russia, where they retained their Lamaist Buddhist religion and their seminomadic life. The word Kalmyk in Turkish means "remnant," referring to those who stayed behind.

The Kalmyk Autonomous Region was established in 1920; it became an autonomous republic in 1936. During World War II, Kalmyk units fought the Russians in collaboration with the Germans. As a result, the people of Kalmykia (some 170,000 individuals) were deported to Siberia in 1943, and their republic was dissolved. In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev denounced the deportation as a Stalinist crime, and the following year about 6,000 Kalmyks were returned. The Kalmyk Autonomous SSR was officially reestablished in 1958. The republic was a signatory, under the name Republic of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangeh, to the Mar. 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation (see RussiaRussia,
officially the Russian Federation,
Rus. Rossiya, republic (2015 est. pop. 143,888,000), 6,591,100 sq mi (17,070,949 sq km). The largest country in the world by area, Russia is bounded by Norway and Finland in the northwest; by Estonia, Latvia, Belarus,
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). The Kalmyks sought independence in the early 1990s but agreed to abandon separatist aims in 1994.

References in periodicals archive ?
Since the beginning of 2019, the Department of Rosselkhoznadzor in the Rostov, Volgograd and Astrakhan regions and the Republic of Kalmykia has blocked 148 authorized persons of economic entities and compiled 209 protocols on administrative offenses.
Comparative analysis of the Kalmyk breed of calves in Kalmykia and in the Orenburg region was performed.
The company of the former President of the Republic of Kalmykia and President of the World Chess Federation bought the 47.5% stake owned by Denis Ershov and the 5% stake owned by Alexander Melnik, according to a statement of Petrol Holding's press office.
PV-Bank was controlled by the former senator of the Kalmykia republic, Igor Provkin.
Russia doesn't have much of a Buddhist population, but much of it is concentrated in three Russian republics - Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia - and another region, Zabaykalsky Krai.
Both firms have agreed to collaborate in fulfilling its funding commitments, estimated at USD90,000,000, for the development of 85,000 acre oil and gas concession in Kalmykia, Russian Federation.
Chess-mad Ilyumzhinov claims aliens brought the game to Earth and has built a sprawling complex devoted to chess in Russia's southern Buddhist region of Kalmykia, where he ruled for 17 years.
Colombo, May 20 -- The former President of the Kalmykia Republic of the Russian Federation and the Chairman of the World Chess Association Mr.
Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, head of the Buddhist Kalmykia region of southern Russia and president of the World Chess Federation (FIDE), announced without apparent irony on a high-profile chat show he had met the aliens in 1997.
The onshore Kaspiskoye field is in the republic of Kalmykia, near the shores of the Caspian Sea in southwestern Russia.
Kalmykia in Russia's past and present national policies and administrative system.
Tatneft and KalmNeft, a 3,700 b/d producer from the Caspian republic of Kalmykia, have a 50-50 JV called KalmTatneft exploring and developing two offshore oil blocks in Tatarstan.