The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Ivan Kaloian). Year of birth unknown; died 1207. Tsar of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom (from 1197).

Kaloian waged a successful struggle against Byzantium, as a result of which all of northern Bulgaria, the Morava region, and most of Macedonia were liberated. In 1204, because of his recognition of the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Roman curia, he was crowned by Pope Innocent III as “Tsar of the Bulgars and the Vlachs.” Relying on the support of the cities and the Bogomils, Kaloian conducted a policy that strengthened royal power. On Apr. 14, 1205, he led Bulgarian troops in a battle against the Crusaders at Adrianople; he was victorious and captured new territories. Kaloian was murdered by boyar conspirators while his troops were besieging Solun (Salonika).


Kazhdan, A., and G. Litavrin. Ocherki istorii Vizantii i iuzhnykh slavian. Moscow, 1958.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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