(also Ivan Kaloian). Year of birth unknown; died 1207. Tsar of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom (from 1197).
Kaloian waged a successful struggle against Byzantium, as a result of which all of northern Bulgaria, the Morava region, and most of Macedonia were liberated. In 1204, because of his recognition of the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Roman curia, he was crowned by Pope Innocent III as “Tsar of the Bulgars and the Vlachs.” Relying on the support of the cities and the Bogomils, Kaloian conducted a policy that strengthened royal power. On Apr. 14, 1205, he led Bulgarian troops in a battle against the Crusaders at Adrianople; he was victorious and captured new territories. Kaloian was murdered by boyar conspirators while his troops were besieging Solun (Salonika).