a city in Khmel’nitskii Oblast, Ukrainian SSR, on the lower course of the Smotrich River (a left tributary of the Dnestr). Railroad station on the Kiev-Chernovtsy line; highway junction. Population, 64, 900 (1972; 36, 500 in 1939).
Kamenets-Podol’skii arose at the end of the 11th century and beginning of the 12th. At first, it was part of Kievan Rus’, but in the 13th century and the first half of the 14th it was part of the Galician-Volynian Principality. In the second half of the 14th century the city was seized by Lithuania, and in 1430, by Poland. It became the administrative center of Podol’e Voe-vodstvo (territory under a military governor) in 1463 and was transformed into a fortress. The city was an important artisan and trade center in the Middle Ages. It was seized by Turkey in 1672 but was returned to Poland in accordance with the Peace of Karlowitz (1698–99). The city became part of Russia on Mar. 27 (Apr. 7), 1793.
Kamenets-Podol’skii was part of the namestnichestvo (vicegerency) of Iziaslav from 1793 to 1795, the administrative center of the namestnichestvo of Podol’e from 1795 to 1797, and the administrative center of Podol’e Province from 1797 to 1917. Soviet power was proclaimed on Nov. 1 (14), 1917. In the period 1918–20, the city was repeatedly seized by Austro-Hungarian troops, by the followers of Petliura, and by Polish White forces. It was liberated once and for all by the Red Army on Nov. 16, 1920. As a result of the socialist transformations accomplished during the years of the prewar five-year plans, Kamenets-Podol’skii has become an industrial, cultural, and scientific center. From July 10, 1941, to Mar. 26, 1944, the city was occupied by fascist German troops, who inflicted heavy damage. Kamenets-Podol’skii was completely restored after the war. Its economy, science, and culture were further developed in the 1950’s and 1960’s.
Enterprises of the city’s industries include an instrument-making plant, a plant producing motor vehicle subassemblies, a building-materials combine, and plants for the production of cables, electrical appliances (Elektropribor), metals, agricultural machines, cold asphalt-concrete, reinforced-concrete structures, and roofing materials. There is also a poultry combine, a meat combine, a sugar factory, and a cannery. A large cement plant is under construction (1972). There are also cotton and clothing factories.
Educational institutions include pedagogical and agricultural institutes, the general technological department of the Khmel’nitskii Technological Institute of Consumer Services; industrial, construction, and agricultural technicums; a technicum of the food industry; and medical and cultural-educational schools. There is a botanical garden. The city’s parks almost completely encircle the canyon of the Smotrich River.
Structures that have been preserved in the old, medieval section of the city include the castle known as the Turkish Fortress (now the Historical Museum; 14th-16th centuries, rebuilt in the 17th and 18th centuries), the Church of Peter and Paul (16th century), a Gothic Roman Catholic Church (16th century) with a Turkish minaret (1672–92), and the town hall (16th century). Two stone bridges connect the old and new sections of the city. Large housing projects are under construction in the new section. The Railroad Terminal Square has been laid out. The wooden Krestovozdvizhenskaia Church (18th century) is located in Karvasary, a suburb.
REFERENCESIurchenko, P. G. “Kam’ianets’-Podil’skyi zamok.” In the collection Arkhitekturni pamHatnyky. Kiev, 1950.
Kam’ianets’-PodiVskyi. Putivnyk. L’vov, 1970.