Kandel, Eric Richard

Kandel, Eric Richard,

1929–, American neurobiologist, b., Vienna, Austria, M.D. New York Univ., 1956. Kandel was at the Harvard Medical School (1960–65) and New York Univ. (1965–74) before joining the faculty at Columbia in 1974. In 2000 he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul GreengardGreengard, Paul,
1925–2019, American neuroscientist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Johns Hopkins, 1953. Greengard was on the staff at Geigy Research Laboratories (1959–67) and a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1961–70) and Yale (1968–83).
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 and Arvid CarlssonCarlsson, Arvid,
1923–2018, Swedish pharmacologist, grad. Univ. of Lund, Sweden, (M.D., Ph.D., 1951). Carlsson was a professor at the Univ. of Lund (1951–59) and at the Univ. of Gothenburg, Sweden (1959–89).
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 for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system. Using the sea slugsea slug,
name for a marine gastropod mollusk that lacks a shell as an adult and is usually brightly colored. Sea slugs, or nudibranchs, are distributed throughout the world, with the greatest numbers and the largest kinds found in tropical waters.
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 as a model system for learning, Kandel uncovered the molecular mechanisms underlying short- and long-term memory. His finding that memories are formed at the synapse, the junction across which nerve impulses are passed, provided an important step toward better understanding of complex memory functions in humans. He is the author of several books, including The Cellular Basis of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Neurobiology (1976), Memory: From Mind to Molecules (with L. R. Squire, 1999), the autobiographical In Search of Memory (2006), and The Age of Insight (2012).
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Kandel, Eric Richard

(1929–  ) neurobiologist, educator; born in Vienna. He emigrated to the United States in 1939. He became a professor at Columbia University in 1983 and senior investigator at Columbia's Howard Hughes Medical Institute in 1984. During the 1970s and 1980s he worked on cellular and molecular mechanisms of three basic forms of learning, habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning; his findings suggest that learning produces changes in behavior by modulating the strength of neural connections.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.