K'ang Yu-wei

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K'ang Yu-wei

(käng yo͞o-wā), 1858–1927, Chinese philosopher and reform movement leader. He was a leading philosopher of the new text school of Confucianism, which regarded Confucius as a utopian political reformer. K'ang first gained fame in 1895 when he sent a memorial to the emperor unsuccessfully urging continuation of the war with Japan, rejection of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and adoption of extensive administrative reforms. That same year with Liang Ch'i-ch'aoLiang Ch'i-ch'ao
, 1873–1929, Chinese reform leader. Liang was a disciple of K'ang Yu-wei. Stunned by China's disastrous defeat by Japan (see Sino-Japanese War, First), K'ang and Liang launched (1895) a movement for constitutional and educational reform.
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 he founded a reform newspaper and a reform organization, but both were quickly suppressed (1896). Enthusiasm for his ideas spread, however, and several provincial reform associations were founded (1896–97). Again confronted with foreign pressure for concessions, Emperor Kuang-hsuKuang-hsu
or Kwang-hsü
, 1871–1908, emperor of China (1875–1908). Although he was not in the direct line of succession, he was appointed to the throne by his aunt, the dowager empress and regent, Tz'u Hsi. He began his rule in 1889.
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 (1898) summoned K'ang to Beijing and asked him to draw up reform plans. In a series of decrees known as the "hundred days' reform," the emperor changed the civil service examination system to include essays on current affairs, established Beijing Univ. as well as western-style provincial schools, abolished many sinecure posts, and revised administrative regulations. Backed by conservative officials, Dowager Empress Tz'u HsiTz'u Hsi,
 Tsu Hsi,
 Tse Hsi,
or Cixi
, 1834–1908, dowager empress of China (1861–1908) and regent (1861–73, 1874–89, 1898–1908).
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 imprisoned the emperor and rescinded most of the reforms. K'ang fled to Japan and spent the years before the 1911 revolution working for constitutional monarchy. He and Liang were bitterly opposed to the T'ung-meng-hui, an anti-Manchu revolutionary party founded in 1905 under the leadership of Sun Yat-senSun Yat-sen
, Mandarin Sun Wen, 1866–1925, Chinese revolutionary. He was born near Guangzhou into a farm-owning family. He attended (1879–82) an Anglican boys school in Honolulu, where he came under Western influence, particularly that of Christianity.
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. After the revolution, K'ang remained in opposition to the republican government, participating (1917) in an unsuccessful attempt to restore the last Ch'ing emperor, Pu YiPu Yi
or Henry Pu-yi,
Manchu Aisin Gioro, 1906–67, last emperor (1908–12) of China, under the reign name Hsuan T'ung. After his abdication, the new republican government granted him a large government pension and permitted him to live in the
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See M. E. Cameron, The Reform Movement in China, 1898–1912 (1931, repr. 1963); biography ed. and tr. by Lo Jung-pang (1967).

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References in periodicals archive ?
He was concerned about the national affairs, promoted cultural activities, provided support and financial to Kang Youwei [phrase omitted] and Hundred Day's Reform, but repeatedly rejected the invitation to be an officer in Fujian and Guangdong province as he refused to be constrained by fame and fortune.
He develops his own vision of heaven, which is very similar to the idea of "Society of Great Unity" propounded by Kang Youwei, an adherent of Confucianism, in his theory of Great Unity.
In contrast, male figures, such as Kang Youwei and the Guanxu Emperor, were the narrow-minded people who cared more about their personal power and gains (245).
These tabloid writers shared Liang's anti-imperialist concern, but were also critical of both reformers like Kang Youwei and even revolutionaries such as Qiu Jin.
Kang Youwei (1858-1927), a leading late Qing reformer, argued that local autonomy was not unique to the West.
Yasuoka was an expert on Confucian philosophy and was connected with Hu Shi, Liang Shuming, and Kang Youwei. Although he endorsed the pan-Asianist rhetoric of the war, he was also a fan of Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) and opposed the Japanese military's conduct in China.
Liang's mentor Kang Youwei went further, stating that Confucianism had to be reinvented in order to save it.
A masterpiece of scholarship, Professor Zarrow enhances his informed and informative presentation into chapters beginning with 'Kang Youwei's Philosophy of Power and the 1898 Reform Movement', to 'Identity, History, and Revolution', to 'Founding the Republic of China'.
Mishra places al- Afghani, Liang, Tagore and others such as Benoy Kumar Sarkar, Liang's mentor Kang Youwei and al- Afghani's Christian disciple, James Sanua, not just in their respective national contexts but as cosmopolitan intellectuals.
Appiah highlights Kang Youwei, a Chinese intellectual who initiated the campaign against foot binding at the turn of the twentieth century.
fugitive and a dreamer, Kang Youwei remained a visionary.