(Hsüan Yeh). Born May 4, 1654; died Dec. 20, 1722, in Peking. Emperor of the Manchu Ch’ing dynasty in China (from 1662). The conquest of China by the Manchus was concluded during K’anghsi’s rule. He cruelly suppressed the numerous popular revolts and terrorized participants in the anti-Manchu movements, including the patriotically motivated Chinese intelligentsia; he began what was known as literary inquisition (“prisons of writing”).

K’anghsi implemented an aggressive policy with respect to theneighboring nationalities and countries. In 1691 he seized theKhalkha Mongol lands and began the conquest of the OiratKhanate. K’anghsi consolidated the power of the Manuchurianand Chinese feudal lords in Tibet and led military campaignsagainst Russian settlements on the Amur River. The NerchinskTreaty was concluded with Russia in 1689.