a Turkic tribal alliance that first appeared in the 11th and 12th centuries in the steppes of the Aral region (north of Khorezm as far as the Volga) through the merger of the indigenous Ghuz-Pecheneg population with the Polovtsy, who had migrated from the Irtysh region in the 11th century.
The chief occupations of the Kangly were nomadic livestock raising and crafts. The Kangly played an important role in the states of medieval Middle Asia (particularly that of the Khwa-razm-shah dynasty). The Kangly who had migrated eastward to the Lake Issyk-Kul’ region were routed by the Mongols in the 13th century. Those that had remained in Khorezm were incorporated into the peoples then forming in Middle Asia (the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Karakalpaks) and the Bashkirs.
REFERENCESIstoriia Uzbekskoi SSR, 2nd ed., vol. 1, books 1–2. Tashkent, 1955–56.
Istoriia Kazakhskoi SSR, vol. 1. Alma-Ata, 1957.