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Immanuel . 1724--1804, German idealist philosopher. He sought to determine the limits of man's knowledge in Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and propounded his system of ethics as guided by the categorical imperative in Critique of Practical Reason (1788)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an urban-type settlement, administrative center of Kant Raion, Kirghiz SSR. Situated in the Chu Valley. Kant has a railroad station 20 km east of the city of Frunze. Population, 22,500 (1971). A cement and slate combine and sugar and overhaul-machinery plants are there.



(from Latin cantus, “singing”), a type of many-voiced song dealing with everyday events prevalent in Russia, the Ukraine, and Byelorussia in the 17th and 18th centuries. Initially kanty were based on religious texts and thus were confined to monasteries and clerical circles.

The poetic style of the kant is derived from literature and not from the folk song. In the 17th century texts by S. Polotskii, E. Slavinetskii, D. Rostovskii, and other representatives of syllabic poetry, were set to music to create kanty. The texts and melodies existed in many variants; they were recorded in manuscript collections that were widely disseminated. The musical style of the kant is characterized by three-voice exposition with parallel movement of the upper voices and a common-time strophic form. They were performed a cappella by an ensemble of singers or a chorus. Their intonational structure represents a fusion of elements of the znamennyi chant, Russian and Ukrainian folk songs, and Polish melodic systems.

Kanty with patriotic, domestic, and romantic-lyrical themes appeared in the 18th century; salutatory and panegyrical kanty with fanfare-like melodic phrases, the grand rhythms of the polonaise, and exultant roulades were typical of the Petrine era. The kant became the favorite form of music of the urban strata of the population. The lyrical kanty incorporated elements from popular dance forms, primarily the minuet. While texts by V. K. Trediakovskii, M. V. Lomonosov, and A. P. Sumarokov are known, the authors and composers of most kanty remain anonymous.


Findeizen, N. F. Ocherki po istorii muzyki v Rossii, vols. 1–2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1928–29.
Livanova, T. N. Russkaia muzykaVnaia kuVtura XVIII veka …, vol. 1. Moscow, 1952.
Pozdneev, A. V. “Rukopisnye pesenniki XVII-XVIII vekov.” Uch. zapiski Moskovskogo zaochnogo ped. in-ta, 1958, vol. 1.
Keldysh, Iu. V. Russkaia muzyka XVIII veka. Moscow, 1965.
Keldysh, Iu. V. “Ob istoricheskikh korniakh kanta.” In the collection Musica antiqua Europae Orientalis, vol. 2. Bydgoszcz, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the view presented in this essay, Kant's universal freedom of action is grounded in the idea, that every human being should be given a legally recognized area of protection that offers him or her the opportunity to fulfill the moral responsibilities of the categorical imperative in the empirical-social world, i.e.
For some, the thesis cannot explain, why, according to Kant, ethically optional actions should also benefit from legal protection.
The existence of a court or other arbiter who "could judge a dispute with rightful force" (Kant 1795, 8:346) is important even in less extreme cases.
Since (1) individuals are under a moral obligation to act autonomously; (2) autonomous action is possible in practice only if an individual's life, health, liberty, and possessions are secured; and (3) the only mechanism through which to realize this security is the austeilende Gerechtigkeit of civil society, Kant concludes that individuals "do wrong in the highest degree" by failing to enter or remain in this condition (Kant 1797, 6:308).
For the current discussion this is a very vital point as it indicates that while Kant was comfortable in the classic languages he had received little to no training in the more modern languages.
Only in response to my essay "Those Obscure Objects of Desire: The Uses and Abuses of Object-Oriented Ontology and Speculative Realism" does Harman come close to acknowledging that Kant beat him to a crucial formulation in object-oriented ontology.
In Chapter 1, "Star Wars," Szendy builds an explanatory frame for Kant's extraterrestrial references in a number of compelling close readings of sciencefiction film and television.
But even though we now finally do have a complete English translation of Kant's Physical Geography, fastidious scholars are already complaining that the wrong text was translated.
Chapter 3 details and defends Ameriks' 'moderate' interpretation of Kant's idealism, according to which spatiotemporal objects have a partly subjective, partly objective status.