see Liu PangLiu Pang
, Chinese emperor (206–195 B.C.), founder of the Han dynasty. Liu was of peasant origin and had been a minor official before joining the free-for-all struggle that attended the collapse of the Ch'in dynasty.
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Born into an aristocratic family, he received a thorough classical education and succeeded his father as lord of Cheng'an; during the collapse of the Ch'in Dynasty, he commanded Chao forces against Kao-tsu, the founder of the Han dynasty (205); accompanied by the Chao king, he awaited the Han forces with a large army deployed across an easily defensible gorge; Han Hsin, commanding the inferior Han forces, sent his infantry to entice the Chao army to attack; meanwhile he himself led his cavalry over the mountains to attack the Chao encampment from the rear; the Chao army broke and fled, leaving both Ch'en and the Chao king to be captured and beheaded.