According to Guerreiro (2012:91, 96) the original distribution of such trophy skulls covers an area stretching from the southern tributaries of the Melawi River to the southern regions of Borneo along the Katingan, Kahayan, and Kapuas
The Capucine mission, situated in Pontianak, Bodok, and Sanggau Kapuas
, consisted of nine priests, two lay brothers, and an elderly Swiss technician.
Although he appears not to have traveled far inland, he gathered from Arab traders considerable commercial and geographical information about the Sambas and the Kapuas
, the latter the most extensive of all Borneo's river systems.
It is relevant that although the Ngaju with whom Ventimiglia established his contacts and mission have lived in recent times mainly along the Kahayan and Kapuas
rivers, they are thought to have migrated from east to west, and steadily upriver, as the Sultans of Banjarmasin extended their control and authority subsequently passed increasingly to the Dutch in the nineteenth century (Knapen 2001, especially pp.
Aside from the Siang, Murung Raya is home to at least five other Dayak groups including the Murung people in the east of the regency, the so-called Uut Danum (or Ot Danum) in the north and west, the nomadic (or at least formerly nomadic) Punan in the far north, and a small number of people in the south and west who are known locally as "Kapuas
" and "Kahayan," but whom the literature would most likely identify as "Nagju." Below I will consider how the Siang relate to these other groups.
company Capacity (Tons/year) Surisenia PMDN Rokan Hulu, CPO - 64,800 Plasmataruna, PT Riau PKO - 16,200 Kapuas
Padu PMDN Sanggau, Olein - 56,000 Makmur, PT West.
Panel topics were "The Cultured Rainforest," "Political Ecology of the Sungai Kapuas
," "Environment, Culture and Public Health in Sabah," "Human-Nature Interactions, Riverine Societies in Sarawak," "Mythology and Historiography in Borneo," "Salt and Society in Highland Borneo," and "The Old Kuching Courthouse." Individual paper sessions covered a wide array of topics, including among others linguistics, language and identity, language endangerment, education, ethnicity and social change in Kalimantan, cultural heritage preservation, ecology and biodiversity, urbanism, history, tourism, property and land issues.
The lakes north of the Kapuas
are not included, which is odd since they are such a dominant geographical feature and of major importance to the people living there.
But for farmers in Kapuas
Hulu, West Kalimantan - the centre of production - demand for Kratom is such that they have moved away from traditional commodities such as rubber and palm oil to start growing the tree, turning it into a major cash crop.