That conviction made history, for it marked the first time a former head of state had been convicted by an international tribunal since 1946, when the Nuremberg trials convicted Karl Donitz
, who had briefly been president of Germany after the death of Adolf Hitler.
His successor, Admiral Karl Donitz
, insisted that he had fought to the last breath against the Soviet army; the Soviets claimed that he was alive and being harbored by the Allies.
, who was thrust into the head of the Third Reich position after Hitler's suicide.
In the confusing days after Hitler's apparent suicide and Germany's surrender, there was fierce debate whether to recognize the new German government under Karl Donitz
. Donitz, commander of the Kriegsmarine (German Navy) during the second half of the war, had been appointed Hitler's successor before Hitler took his life in the bunker below Berlin on 30 April.
Admiral Karl Donitz
, the senior Nazi naval commander, coined the phrase "Tonnage War" to describe the practice of indiscriminately sinking Allied merchant vessels in order to force Allied industry to replace the vessel.
On May 6th, General Alfred Jodl, chief of staff at the Wehrmacht, arrived in Reims as the representative of Grand Admiral Karl Donitz
, who had taken over the German leadership following Hitler's suicide at the end of April.
Following German reverses in the USSR and the Allied landings in North Africa in 1942, Raeder adopted a cautious, defensive position, which led to his replacement by submarine commander Karl Donitz
, who emphasized commerce raiding from the start.
He argues that Hitler planned to use new, technologically advanced Type XXI submarines under the command of Admiral Karl Donitz
to blockade Britain and halt the shipment of American supplies and troops to Europe.
ANSWERS: 1 Venezuela; 2 Insulin; 3 The sinking of the Titanic; 4 Argentina; 5 Hey Jude; 6 Admiral Karl Donitz
; 7 Take My Breath Away; 8 Anil Kumble; 9 Nahuatl (or Aztec) in central America; 10 Richard Dadd.
Hitler's appointed successor, Admiral Karl Donitz
, nominated as President of Germany, had vowed to his people to continue the fight, but was simply left to agree the terms of their surrender.