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Karnak(kär`năk), village (1986 pop. 20,842), central Egypt, on the Nile. It is 1 mi (1.6 km) NE of LuxorLuxor
, city (1996 pop. 360,503), central Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile. It is 1 mi (1.6 km) SW of Karnak and occupies part of the site of Thebes. The temple of Luxor, the greatest monument of antiquity in the city, was built in the reign of Amenhotep III (1414 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information. and occupies part of the site of ThebesThebes
, city of ancient Egypt. Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure until the rise of the Theban family
..... Click the link for more information. . Remains of the pharaohs abound at Karnak. Most notable is the Great Temple of Amon. Although there was an older foundation, the temple was largely conceived and accomplished in the XVIII dynasty, and it is often considered the finest example of New Empire religious architecture. The temple grounds extend about 1,000 ft (300 m). The western half comprises a vast court and the great hypostyle hall (388 ft by 170 ft/118 m by 52 m), with 134 columns arranged in 16 rows. The eastern half is a complex of halls and shrines, many of the Middle Kingdom. There are smaller temples at Karnak dedicated to Mut and to Khensu, wife and son respectively of AmonAmon
, or Amen
, Egyptian deity. He was originally the chief god of Thebes; he and his wife Mut and their son Khensu were the divine Theban triad of deities.
..... Click the link for more information. .
(in ancient Egyptian, Ipet-isut), a complex of temples dating from the 20th century B.C. to the end of the first millennium B.C. It is named after an Arabic village and is located on the site of ancient Thebes. Karnak was the principal state sanctuary during the period of the New Kingdom in Egypt (the 16th to 11th centuries B.C.). Intended to glorify the power of the pharaohs, Karnak is distinguished by the complex layout of the huge architectural masses and the magnificent decoration of the buildings. The temple of the god Amon-Re (16th to 12th centuries B.C.; completed in the Hellenistic and Roman periods) is characteristic of the New Kingdom type of sanctuary, with its large and small halls and courts alternating along the longitudinal axis. Chapels and small temples built at different times are located in these halls and courts. The most striking feature of the temple of Karnak is the great pillared hall, or hypostyle, whose walls and columns were covered with painted reliefs. Each great building period ended with the construction of a wall around the temple and two tower-pylons on the facade, against which were set obelisks and statues. Near the temple of Amon-Re are the temples of the god Khonsu (12th century B.C.), the goddess Mut (16th-15th centuries B.C.), and others. An avenue of sphinxes led from the Nile to the sanctuary. Among Karnak’s architects were Ineni, Hapuseneb, Puemre, Sennenmut, and Menkheperresenb (16th—15th century B.C.); Amenhotep, son of Hapu, and Amen-hotep the Younger (15th century B.C.); and Maja, Iwpa, Hatjaj, and Parennefer (14th—13th centuries B.C.).
REFERENCEMat’e, M. Iskusstvo Novogo tsarstva XVI-XV veka. Leningrad, 1947.
(Istoriia iskusstva Drevnego Vostoka, vol. 1, fasc. 3.) Pages 27–46, 48–82.