Karyogram


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Karyogram

 

the graphic representation of a karyotype, used in the quantitative characterization of each chromosome.

One type of karyogram is an idiogram, a rough sketch of the chromosomes arranged in rows according to length. Another type is a graph for which the coordinates are (1) lengths of the given chromosome (or a part thereof) or of the entire karyotype(for example, the relative length of the chromosomes) and (2) the so-called centromere index, that is, the ratio of the length of the short arm to that of the entire chromosome. The arrangement of each point on the karyogram reflects the distribution of the chromosomes in the karyotype. The main purpose of karyogramanalys is to detect heterogeneity in externally similar chromosomes of a given group.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sea urchins have small chromosomes (1-6 [micro]mol [1.sup.-1]) that are highly similar, and conventional cytogenetic techniques have yielded preliminary karyograms for only three unrelated species: Arbacia punctulata (2n = 44--Auclair, 1965); Pseudocentrotus depressus, a strongylocentrotid urchin related to both species used in the current study (Lee, 2003; 2n = 42--Yamanaka et al., 1989); and Paracentrotus lividus (2n = 36--Lipani et al., 1996).
This software was also used for measuring long arm (L), short arm (S) and whole chromosome lengths, and constructing karyograms based on arm length ratios (Levan et al., 1964).
Figure 3A and B shows 2 examples of hypodiploid metaphase spread and their karyograms. The chromosomes of these 2 metaphases were preliminarily divided into 2 groups by pairing.
The karyograms were prepared by separating and sorting the chromosomes according to their bandings.
This software was also used for measuring long (L) and short (S) arms, as well as whole chromosome lengths, and for constructing karyograms based on arm length ratios (Levan et al., 1964).
The karyograms of some species of Plantago obtained from different geographical regions revealed uniform features [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 1, 2 OMITTED].