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(kăshmē`rē), language belonging to the Dardic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. See Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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the language of the Kashmiris, one of the 14 official languages of India. It belongs to the Dard group of Indo-Iranian languages and is spoken by the inhabitants of the Vale of Kashmir. It has the dialects of Kashmiri proper, Kishtwari, Pogul, Siraji, and Rambani (the last three are transitional between Kashmiri and the Pahari and Punjabi dialects).

Kashmiri is spoken by approximately 2.5 million persons (1970, estimate). It has a distinction between long and short vowels. The complex consonant system contains aspirated, retroflex, palatalized, and labialized series. The morphology is characterized by a four-case system, masculine and feminine gender, and a definite-indefinite noun category. Aspectual and temporal oppositions occur in the verb system. Pronominal enclitics are used to indicate the person of the subject and object with verb forms. The syntax is characterized by an ergative construction. The modern writing system is based on Arabic script.


Edel’man, D. I. Dardskie iazyki. Moscow, 1965.
Zakhar’in, B. A., and D. I. Edel’man. Iazyk kashmiri. Moscow, 1971.
Grierson, G. A. A Manual of the Kāshmīrī Language, vols. 1–2. Oxford, 1911.
Grierson, G. A. A Dictionary of the Kashmiri Language, vols. 1–4. Calcutta, 1915–32.
Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India, vol. 8, part 2. Calcutta, 1919.
Kachru, B. B. A Reference Grammar of Kashmiri. Urbana, 111., 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
The sole purpose of forming KSU is to ensure Kashmiri students in Chandigarh feel safe and secure and don't have to face any problems in their respective colleges.
Already there are voices in Indian universities and even in Indian Parliament that, India must decide Kashmir dispute as per the wishes of Kashmiri people and Kashmir want to be part of Pakistan.
A special song was screened at the event that portrayed the spirit of courage, resilience and determination of the Kashmiri people in the face of adversity.
They called Kashmir valley the jugular vein of Pakistan and said that the sacrifices being rendered by Kashmiri people would not go in vain.
Processions, rallies, conferences and seminars are organized by many political and religious parties where politicians, heads of religious organizations, opinion leaders, and influential public figures address the masses and speak to support the Kashmiri freedom movement.
He also said that denial of the right to self-determination of the Kashmiris highlights the flaws in moral, diplomatic and political behaviour.
These flats were constructed under the Scheme approved in 2008 by the Government of India for rehabilitation of Kashmiri migrants," he said.
The delegation particularly highlighted a new strategy employed by Indian occupation forces to suppress Kashmiri movement and dissipate peaceful protesters.
PM Raja Farooq Haider said that in occupied Kashmir Kashmiris flouting curfew and other restrictions and celebrated Pakistan Independence Day.
It is aimed at demolishing our cultural identity as the existing script has been in vogue for over the past five centuries and the entire Kashmiri literature is available in this script.
Pakistanis and Kashmiris in Qatar observed Kashmir Black Day at the Pakistan embassy on Tuesday by renewing their pledge for continued moral support to Kashmiris in their just cause to self-determination.
Shoaib Khan, assistant political agent in South Waziristan, confirmed to Kyodo News by telephone that Kashmiri was among nine people killed by three missiles fired by a U.