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(kăshmē`rē), language belonging to the Dardic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. See Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by more than a billion people, chiefly in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka (see The Indo-European Family of Languages, table).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the language of the Kashmiris, one of the 14 official languages of India. It belongs to the Dard group of Indo-Iranian languages and is spoken by the inhabitants of the Vale of Kashmir. It has the dialects of Kashmiri proper, Kishtwari, Pogul, Siraji, and Rambani (the last three are transitional between Kashmiri and the Pahari and Punjabi dialects).

Kashmiri is spoken by approximately 2.5 million persons (1970, estimate). It has a distinction between long and short vowels. The complex consonant system contains aspirated, retroflex, palatalized, and labialized series. The morphology is characterized by a four-case system, masculine and feminine gender, and a definite-indefinite noun category. Aspectual and temporal oppositions occur in the verb system. Pronominal enclitics are used to indicate the person of the subject and object with verb forms. The syntax is characterized by an ergative construction. The modern writing system is based on Arabic script.


Edel’man, D. I. Dardskie iazyki. Moscow, 1965.
Zakhar’in, B. A., and D. I. Edel’man. Iazyk kashmiri. Moscow, 1971.
Grierson, G. A. A Manual of the Kāshmīrī Language, vols. 1–2. Oxford, 1911.
Grierson, G. A. A Dictionary of the Kashmiri Language, vols. 1–4. Calcutta, 1915–32.
Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India, vol. 8, part 2. Calcutta, 1919.
Kachru, B. B. A Reference Grammar of Kashmiri. Urbana, 111., 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
" We have welcomed the proposal to have National Council for Promotion of Kashmiri language but it should serve the language only through the existing script," Bukhari said.
The Kashmiri language is the same for both the communities barring few words.
Prof Mashal Sultan Puri, a renowned poet, writer and Patron of Adbi Markaz Kamraz, said the Kashmiri language has been treasured in the same Kashmiri script since decades and there is nothing like Pandits and Muslims.
She spread her message in Kashmiri language, accessible to everyone, not only privileged intellectual elite.
n Advanced diploma in Kashmiri language, Kashmir University, Srinagar.
Students and scholars call the move commendable and said it would benefit not only students in Kashmir but also the outsiders who want to learn the Kashmiri language.
"Not only the Kashmiri students but foreigners studying here or our students studying outside can access Kashmiri language through the website," said Sahil Showkat, a student.
Speaking on the occasion, Director General PAL Dr Rashid Hameed said Dr Jafri was an internationally recognized writer whose more than 30 books have been published in Urdu, English and Kashmiri languages.
There is a long tradition in Kashmir of writing protest songs, but they are usually in the local Urdu and Kashmiri languages so do not have much impact outside the region.
The military band started its performance with playing national anthem of Pakistan and then presented some melodious tunes including 'Jeevay Jeevay Pakistan', Aiy Puttar Hattan Tey Nahin Vikday.' The audience also appreciated famous tunes of traditional folk songs of Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi and Kashmiri languages.
The audience also appreciated famous tunes of traditional folk songs of Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Kashmiri languages.