Katiusha

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Katiusha

 

the unofficial name during the Great Patriotic War (1941–5) for barrel-less field rocket artillery systems.

In 1921, N. I. Tikhomirov and V. A. Artem’ev of the Gas Dynamics Laboratory started work on rocket projectiles to be propelled by smokeless powder. Between 1929 and 1933 a group of scientists of the laboratory, directed by B. S Petropavlovskii and including G. E. Langemak, E. S. Petrov, and I. T. Kleime-nov, developed and officially tested rockets of different calibers —the prototypes of the Katiusha rocket—and multishot aviation launchers and single-shot ground launchers. The final work on the rocket was carried out at the Rocket Institute under the direction of Langemak and with the participation of Artem’ev, Kleimenov, Iu. A. Pobedonostsev, and L. E. Shvarts. The air force adopted the rocket in 1937–38, installing the RS-82 on the 1–15, 1–16, and 1–153 fighter planes and later on the 11–2 attack planes; the RS-132 projectiles, which were developed later, were installed on SB bombers and 11–2 assault planes. In 1939 the air force used them effectively in battles against the Japanese invaders on the Khalkhin-Gol River.

In 1938–41, 1. I. Gvai, V. N. Galkovskii, A. P. Pavlenko, and A. S. Popov of the Rocket Institute developed a multishot launcher mounted on a truck. The M–13 rocket and the BM–13 launcher were adopted by the artillery on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. The first salvo from a Katiusha at the fascist German troops was fired on July 14, 1941, near Orsha by Captain I. A. Flerov’s battery. The Katiusha played a major role in combat. In the course of the war many versions of rockets and launchers were developed, such as the BM13–SN, the BM8–8, and the BM31–12. Between July 1941 and December 1944 Soviet industry produced more than 10, 000 Katiusha truck-launchers and more than 12 million rockets of all calibers.

REFERENCES

Petrovich, G. [et al.] “Kak sozdavalas’ reaktivnaia artilleriia.” Voennoistorich. zhurnal, 1970, no. 6.
Pobedonostsev, Iu. A., and K. M. Kuznetsov. Pervye starty. Moscow, 1972.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(128) Two examples that follow this trope are Sonia Marmeladova from Dostoevskii's Crime and Punishment (1866) and Katiusha Maslova from Tolstoi's Resurrection (1899).
But Agler saved his best for last: Alfano's woefully underrated Risurrezione (1904), after Tolstoy, was given a near-perfect realization by director Rosetta Cucchi, conductor Francesco Cilluffo, and a splendid cast led by the remarkable Anne Sophie Duprels, palpably under the long-suffering skin of the many-mooded Katiusha, and Gerard Schneider, vocally and dramatically a frilly worthy partner as the equally flawed, equally penitent Prince Dimitri.
The army and popular committee also hit mercenaries in Karish area of southern province of Lahj, and fired Katiusha rockets against mercenary gatherings in Asilan district of neighboring province of Shabwa.
En verano, residiendo en la finca de sus tias, pasaba las noches de luna llena paseando por el jardin, entregado a sus suenos, sin reparar siquiera durante todo un mes en la esbelta figura de una doncella de ojos negros, a la que llamaban Katiusha. Por lo visto, no hay espacio para la sexualidad infantil ni juvenil, y esta es inocente, la educacion recibida presenta el matrimonio como unica meta, sin vivencias previas del cuerpo propio, ni fantasias eroticas, ni apasionadas aproximaciones interpersonales, puesto que las mujeres no son consideradas como tales.
She added that the raid came in retaliation for an earlier Katiusha attack against "Eshkol/Southern Israel" with no casualties reported.
"Katiusha's life," he thinks, "and the pus that seeped out of the [merchant's] nostrils, and the eyes coming out of their sockets, and his act with her--all were, it seemed to him, objects that belonged to one and the same category, and he was surrounded from all sides and swallowed by these objects" (PSS 32: 69).
Thus, after the past experience with Katiusha has been narrated, it is this repressed conscience that Nekhliudov finds himself remembering again and again, rather than the plot details, as the trial continues.
"Katiusha," a Russian popular song, was mentioned laughingly.
Larina Harriet Walter Princess Alina Irene Worth Guillot Jason Watkins Katiusha Francesca Annis With: Gwenllian Davies, Simon McBurney, Geoff McGivern, Margery Withers, Tim McMullan, Tim Potter, Richard Bremmer, Elizabeth Berrington.