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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city (since 1909) and administrative center of Kazakh Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located on the Akstafa River, atributary of the Kura, 9 km southwest of the Akstafa railroad station on the Tbilisi-Baku line. Population, 13, 000 (1970). Ahighway junction and center for the manufacture of high-pile carpets, Kazakh has a carpet factory. It also has an agricultural technicum and a medical school. Cultural institutions include a museum of the Azerbaijani poet M. Vagif and a people’s amateur theater.



the language of the Kazakhs, the native population of the Kazakh SSR. The number of Kazakh speakers in the USSR is 5, 193, 000 (1970, census). Kazakh is also spoken by Kazakhs living in the People’s Republic of China (509, 000; 1953, census), the Mongolian People’s Republic (43, 000; 1963, estimate), and Afghanistan (3, 000; 1962, estimate). Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages.

Modern Kazakh has three dialects: northeastern, southern, and western. However, the dialectal differences are not great. The modern Kazakh literary language is based on the northeastern dialect. The principal features of Kazakh are the correspondence of Kazakh š to Common Turkic č (qaš instead of qač, “to run away”), the correspondence of Kazakh s to Common Turkic š (qïs instead of qiš, “winter”), the correspondence of Kazakh initial ž to initial y and in other Turkic languages (žol instead of yol or džol, “road”), and the presence of a present-future participle with the suffix -atïn (-etin, -ytïn, or -ytin).

The Kazakh literary language took shape in the second half of the 19th century as a result of the activities of the Kazakh enlighteners Abai Kunanbaev and Ibrai Altynsarin. Kazakh was first written in the Arabic alphabet and later in the Latin alphabet; a Russian-based alphabet was adopted in 1940.


Melioranskii, P. M. Kratkaia grammatika kazak-kirgizskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1894–97.
Balakaev, M. B. Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk: Sintaksis slovosochetaniia i prostogo predlozheniia. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Begaliev, G. Kratkii kazakhsko-russkii slovar’. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk. Edited by M. B. Balakaev, N. A. Baskakov, and S. K. Kenesbaev. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Russko-kazakhskii slovar’. Edited by N. Sauranbaev. Moscow, 1954.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Kazak has over 15 years of experience in hardware and software solutions in the Middle East and Africa, including several leadership positions within the document management industry.
On this basis, we randomly selected 419 Uygur cases, 331 Kazak cases, and 220 Han cases, resulting in a total of 970 cases for study.
At the consultations, BSP and DPS discussed submitting a possible motion of no confidence over the governmentas healthcare and demographic policies as well as its record in law enforcement and the fight against crime, Kazak said.
For his part, Kazak expressed desire of Russiancompanies to contribute to developing oil sector in Syria, particularly as Story Trans Gas Companyis carrying out big oil projects in Syria and it seeks to enhance its existence in new vital oilprojects.
Kazak President Nursultan Nazarbayev said both the countries have agreed to enhance cooperation in textile, energy and defence fields.
Our study consisted of 980 Uygur participants (580 males and 400 females) and 1122 Kazak participants (415 males and 707 females) from Yili and Kashi in Xinjiang province of China, and the subjects used in our study are new and different individuals from those in [3].
If you see cinema from Asian countries, it may be at film festivals, Chinese films, Japanese films, Korean films or Iranian films but you rarely get to see Afghan films or Kazak films."
The cultural event was held at the Pyramid stadium, apex is glazed with doves fluttering in a blue sky beneath a yellow sun - blue and yellow being the colors of Kazakhstan's flag and it has a seating capacity of 1300 and the stadium was fully packed and in fact the Kazaks enjoyed every bit of the cultural program.
"To those reluctant national governments I say we must see the FTA as an opportunity and not as a threat," rapporteur Metin Kazak (ALDE, Bulgaria) said.
Tuesday in the township of Araltobe, Xinyuan county in the Kazak autonomous prefecture of Ili, trapping 28 workers in the mine.
Meanwhile, by a large majority, the European Parliament adopted a report by Bulgarian MEP Metin Kazak, containing recommendations for expanding EU business dealings with Turkey.