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a city (since 1909) and administrative center of Kazakh Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located on the Akstafa River, atributary of the Kura, 9 km southwest of the Akstafa railroad station on the Tbilisi-Baku line. Population, 13, 000 (1970). Ahighway junction and center for the manufacture of high-pile carpets, Kazakh has a carpet factory. It also has an agricultural technicum and a medical school. Cultural institutions include a museum of the Azerbaijani poet M. Vagif and a people’s amateur theater.



the language of the Kazakhs, the native population of the Kazakh SSR. The number of Kazakh speakers in the USSR is 5, 193, 000 (1970, census). Kazakh is also spoken by Kazakhs living in the People’s Republic of China (509, 000; 1953, census), the Mongolian People’s Republic (43, 000; 1963, estimate), and Afghanistan (3, 000; 1962, estimate). Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages.

Modern Kazakh has three dialects: northeastern, southern, and western. However, the dialectal differences are not great. The modern Kazakh literary language is based on the northeastern dialect. The principal features of Kazakh are the correspondence of Kazakh š to Common Turkic č (qaš instead of qač, “to run away”), the correspondence of Kazakh s to Common Turkic š (qïs instead of qiš, “winter”), the correspondence of Kazakh initial ž to initial y and in other Turkic languages (žol instead of yol or džol, “road”), and the presence of a present-future participle with the suffix -atïn (-etin, -ytïn, or -ytin).

The Kazakh literary language took shape in the second half of the 19th century as a result of the activities of the Kazakh enlighteners Abai Kunanbaev and Ibrai Altynsarin. Kazakh was first written in the Arabic alphabet and later in the Latin alphabet; a Russian-based alphabet was adopted in 1940.


Melioranskii, P. M. Kratkaia grammatika kazak-kirgizskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1894–97.
Balakaev, M. B. Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk: Sintaksis slovosochetaniia i prostogo predlozheniia. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Begaliev, G. Kratkii kazakhsko-russkii slovar’. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk. Edited by M. B. Balakaev, N. A. Baskakov, and S. K. Kenesbaev. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Russko-kazakhskii slovar’. Edited by N. Sauranbaev. Moscow, 1954.


References in periodicals archive ?
Kazaks expressed their happiness by clapping and enjoying the Sri Lankan cultural program.
The Kazak performance can be placed into proper context when you realise not one of their stars on display last night play outside of Europe's furthest outpost.
The exhibition, held in a public hall in the city of Tama, western Tokyo, featured about 10 photos, some of which simply showed ordinary, quaint aspects of rural Kazak life that Morizumi included for balance.
At the same time, Kazaks believes that the recession in Latvia has already ended in the first quarter of this year, and future figures will indicate pluses in comparison with previous quarters; however, positive year-on-year growth may only start to show in the fourth quarter, which will not be enough to compensate for the rapid fall in GDP last year, meaning that year-on-year, the economy will show a fall of 2.
Kazaks says that this process will help to achieve a healthier consumption level, as consumption was previously too high, driven by unsustainable growth in credit, when compared to the stock of available assets in Latvia.
Not quite champagne and caviar yet - but still too tasty for the Kazaks.
Now the country's most respected coach - ex-Kairat Almaty and Kazak national boss Fomichev - has launched a blistering attack on Celtic.
Only a professional, competent 90 minutes will be required to finish off these Kazaks who might have surprised themselves when they took the lead last night given their obvious limitations.