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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city (since 1909) and administrative center of Kazakh Raion, Azerbaijan SSR. Located on the Akstafa River, atributary of the Kura, 9 km southwest of the Akstafa railroad station on the Tbilisi-Baku line. Population, 13, 000 (1970). Ahighway junction and center for the manufacture of high-pile carpets, Kazakh has a carpet factory. It also has an agricultural technicum and a medical school. Cultural institutions include a museum of the Azerbaijani poet M. Vagif and a people’s amateur theater.



the language of the Kazakhs, the native population of the Kazakh SSR. The number of Kazakh speakers in the USSR is 5, 193, 000 (1970, census). Kazakh is also spoken by Kazakhs living in the People’s Republic of China (509, 000; 1953, census), the Mongolian People’s Republic (43, 000; 1963, estimate), and Afghanistan (3, 000; 1962, estimate). Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak group of the Turkic languages.

Modern Kazakh has three dialects: northeastern, southern, and western. However, the dialectal differences are not great. The modern Kazakh literary language is based on the northeastern dialect. The principal features of Kazakh are the correspondence of Kazakh š to Common Turkic č (qaš instead of qač, “to run away”), the correspondence of Kazakh s to Common Turkic š (qïs instead of qiš, “winter”), the correspondence of Kazakh initial ž to initial y and in other Turkic languages (žol instead of yol or džol, “road”), and the presence of a present-future participle with the suffix -atïn (-etin, -ytïn, or -ytin).

The Kazakh literary language took shape in the second half of the 19th century as a result of the activities of the Kazakh enlighteners Abai Kunanbaev and Ibrai Altynsarin. Kazakh was first written in the Arabic alphabet and later in the Latin alphabet; a Russian-based alphabet was adopted in 1940.


Melioranskii, P. M. Kratkaia grammatika kazak-kirgizskogo iazyka, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1894–97.
Balakaev, M. B. Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk: Sintaksis slovosochetaniia i prostogo predlozheniia. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Begaliev, G. Kratkii kazakhsko-russkii slovar’. Alma-Ata, 1959.
Sovremennyi kazakhskii iazyk. Edited by M. B. Balakaev, N. A. Baskakov, and S. K. Kenesbaev. Alma-Ata, 1962.
Russko-kazakhskii slovar’. Edited by N. Sauranbaev. Moscow, 1954.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Other peoples from across Central Asia challenged the very survival of the Kazaks. It was only a matter of time before the tension from outside led to internecine clan violence.
Our study consisted of 980 Uygur participants (580 males and 400 females) and 1122 Kazak participants (415 males and 707 females) from Yili and Kashi in Xinjiang province of China, and the subjects used in our study are new and different individuals from those in [3].
Kazaks expressed their happiness by clapping and enjoying the Sri Lankan cultural program.
The Kazak performance can be placed into proper context when you realise not one of their stars on display last night play outside of Europe's furthest outpost.
"Special mention should go to Paul Butler for beating a good Kazak and then Darran Langley.
Kazaks is sure that an improvement in the economic situation can be expected this year, partly due to the fact that the fall in some sectors has been excessively large, and will now be followed by a swift rebound effect.
His professionalism was briefly overcome by the shock of Berik's appearance, and he was unable to photograph the boy until Yuri Kuidin, a Kazak photographer who took Morizumi to the village, reminded him why they had come.
Now the country's most respected coach - ex-Kairat Almaty and Kazak national boss Fomichev - has launched a blistering attack on Celtic.
Kazaks says that this process will help to achieve a healthier consumption level, as consumption was previously too high, driven by unsustainable growth in credit, when compared to the stock of available assets in Latvia.
But such was the limited ambition of the Kazaks that Capello was able to cancel the insurance policy at halftime and bring on the more adventurous Shaun Wright-Phillips.