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Kedah(kĕ`də, kā`dä), state (1991 pop. 1,304,800), 3,660 sq mi (9,479 sq km), central Malay Peninsula, Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. It is bordered on the N and NE by Thailand. The capital and chief city is Alor SetarAlor Setar
or Alor Star
, city (1991 pop. 165,113), capital of Kedah, Malaysia, central Malay Peninsula, on the Kedah River. It is a major center for trade in rice and rubber. The residence of the Sultan of Kedah is in the city.
..... Click the link for more information. ; Sungai Patani is an important town. Along the coast are wide alluvial plains where rice is grown. S Kedah has rubber plantations, and tin is mined in the hills of the interior. Generally level, Kedah has on its east border a mountain range that rises to 6,600 ft (2,012 m). Several islands are also included in the state; Langkawi off the northwest coast is the largest. The majority of the inhabitants of Kedah are Malays; there are also many Chinese, Indians working on the rubber plantations, and small groups of aborigines. Kedah was the center of the early Hinduized kingdom of Langkasuka, according to Arab and Chinese reports of the 6th–8th cent. During the Sri Vijaya domination of the Malay Peninsula (8th–13th cent.) it was an important naval and trade center. During the 15th cent. it fell under the domination of Malacca (see MelakaMelaka
, state (1991 pop. 504,502), 640 sq mi (1,658 sq km), Malaysia, S Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Formerly one of the Straits Settlements, it was constituted a state of Malaya in 1957 (see Malaysia).
..... Click the link for more information. ) but maintained substantial independence and a profitable trade with India and Indonesia. At this time most of the inhabitants were converted to Islam. After the fall of Malacca (1511), Kedah was fought over by the Portuguese, Dutch, Bugis, Minangkabau, and Siamese. By ceding PinangPinang
, state (1991 pop. 1,065,075), c.400 sq mi (1,040 sq km), Malaysia, on the Strait of Malacca. It consists of Pulau Pinang (an island of 108 sq mi/280 sq km), formerly known as Georgetown; and Province Wellesley (292 sq mi/756 sq km), a strip of
..... Click the link for more information. (1786) and Province Wellesley (1800) to the British, the sultan of Kedah embittered his relations with the Siamese court, which was not appeased by his subsequent conquest of PerakPerak
, state (1991 pop. 1,880,016), 8,030 sq mi (20,798 sq km), Malaysia, central Malay Peninsula, on the Strait of Malacca. Perak is bordered on the N by Thailand. The capital is Ipoh; Taiping is also important. The state is drained by the Perak River (c.
..... Click the link for more information. for Siam. A bloody Siamese invasion (1821) drove him into exile until 1842; upon his return PerlisPerlis
, state (1991 pop. 184,070), 310 sq mi (803 sq km), Malaysia, central Malay Peninsula, on the Andaman Sea. The smallest of the states of Malaysia, it is bordered on the N and E by Thailand and on the SE by Kedah, of which it formed a part till 1842.
..... Click the link for more information. was created as a separate state. In 1909, Siam transferred sovereignty over Kedah to Great Britain. Before the establishment of the Federation of Malaya (1948), Kedah was classed as one of the Unfederated Malay States. See MalaysiaMalaysia
, independent federation (2005 est. pop. 23,953,000), 128,430 sq mi (332,633 sq km), Southeast Asia. The official capital and by far the largest city is Kuala Lumpur; Putrajaya is the adminstrative capital.
..... Click the link for more information. .
a state in Malaysia, in the northwestern part of the Malay Peninsula. Area, 9,500 sq km; population, 954,700 (1970). The administrative center is Alor Setar. The basis of the economy is the cultivation of rubber plants and rice; coconut palms and tropical fruits are also grown. There is fishing for shad and mackerel off the coast. Tin ore is mined. Kedah has primary rubber-processing and rice-cleaning enterprises.