Kellogg-Briand Pact


Also found in: Legal, Wikipedia.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

(brēäN`), agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928, condemning "recourse to war for the solution of international controversies." It is more properly known as the Pact of Paris. In June, 1927, Aristide BriandBriand, Aristide
, 1862–1932, French statesman. A lawyer and a Socialist, he entered (1902) the chamber of deputies and helped to draft and pass the law (1905) for separation of church and state.
..... Click the link for more information.
, foreign minister of France, proposed to the U.S. government a treaty outlawing war between the two countries. Frank B. KelloggKellogg, Frank Billings,
1856–1937, American lawyer, U.S. senator (1917–23), and cabinet member, b. Potsdam, N.Y. As a child, he moved to Olmstead co., Minn. He later studied law and held several municipal posts. He entered private law practice in St. Paul, Minn.
..... Click the link for more information.
, the U.S. secretary of state, returned a proposal for a general pact against war, and after prolonged negotiations the Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations—Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, and the United States. The contracting parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts, no matter of what origin or nature, that might arise among them should be sought only by pacific means and that war was to be renounced as an instrument of national policy.

Although 62 nations signed, its effectiveness was vitiated by its failure to provide measures of enforcement. The Kellogg-Briand Pact was given an unenthusiastic reception by many countries. The U.S. Senate, ratifying the treaty with only one dissenting vote, still insisted that there must be no curtailment of America's right of self-defense and that the United States was not compelled to take action against countries that broke the treaty. The pact never made a meaningful contribution to international order, although it was invoked in 1929 with some success, when China and the USSR reached a tense moment over possession of the Chinese Eastern RR in Manchuria. Ultimately, however, the pact proved to be meaningless, especially with the practice of waging undeclared wars in the 1930s (e.g., the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, and the German occupation of Austria in 1938). Nonetheless, the pact remains in force; 67 nations currently are signatories.

Bibliography

See R. H. Ferrell, Peace in Their Time (1952, repr. 1968); O. A. Hathaway and S. J. Shapiro, The Internationalists (2017).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the most intriguing developments of the early twentieth century was an international peace movement that began during World War I, which came to be known as "the war to end all wars." The movement culminated in a multinational conference in Paris in 1928 where fifteen nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, a treaty that outlawed war as a means of resolving "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or whatever origin" between states.
Contestants in the 2019 competition must address their essays to a person or persons of their choice who can help promote knowledge of the Kellogg-Briand Pact and from whom they expect a response.
Yet the aftermath of World War I, saw the reemergence of isolationism characterized by the utopian Kellogg-Briand Pact which delusionally sought to outlaw war "as an instrument of international policy." U.S.
What value is a piece of paper, like another 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact that renounced the use of war, that simply declares peace without taking the difficult steps to end confrontation as the United States and the Soviet Union did at the end of the Cold War?
The Kellogg-Briand Pact made war a crime in 1928 and various atrocities became criminal acts at Nuremberg and Tokyo.
If you were to ask historians to name the most foolish treaty ever signed, odds are good that they would name the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928.
It worried that America could "muddle into war" (in respect of Munich, the Journal put its faith in the Kellogg-Briand Pact outlawing war).
[12] Germany had also signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, [15] which condemned aggressive wars, and the Geneva Convention [16] in 1929, which specified in its rules how prisoners of war should be protected.
She highly recommended a book, "my bible, " she said, When the World Outlawed War, by David Swanson, which tells of a time in US history when we did outlaw war through the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 that renounced war as an instrument of national policy She discussed the global movement to ban nuclear weapons, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) that held a conference in 2013 in Oslo attended by 122 countries and non-governmental organizations, and Reaching Critical Will, the disarmament program of WILPF International, reachingcriticalwill.org.
This resource contains 45 primary source documents from 1920s America on the return to normal life after World War I; the Sacco-Vanzetti case; prohibition; the age of President Calvin Coolidge; women's life, including the right to vote and the development of birth control; African Americans; the Scopes trial involving the ban on teaching evolution in public schools; international treaty negotiations (the Conference on Naval Disarmament and the Kellogg-Briand Pact); President Herbert Hoover; and new trends in industry, travel, and culture, such as aviation, automobiles, and The Jazz Singer.
In 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact was signed in Paris, outlawing war and providing for the peaceful settlement of disputes.
It may be that the majority of House members will insist on a vote over the will of the speaker and the democratic leader, and we will know in either of those cases if the president goes ahead with the war, then he will be violating the US Constitution as well as the UN Charter and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. That would be a clear ground for his impeachment, and that would be a crisis in the US government.