Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

(redirected from Kemal Ataturk)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal

 

Born 1881, in Salonika; died Nov. 10, 1938, in Istanbul. Founder and first president (1923–38) of the Turkish Republic. The Great Turkish National Assembly gave him the surname Atatürk (literally, father of the Turks) in 1934, when surnames were introduced.

Atatürk was born into the family of a timber merchant, a former customs clerk. He received a secondary military education in Salonika and Monastir (Bitola), and a higher education in Istanbul, where he graduated from the General Staff Academy in January 1905. He participated in the Young Turks movement. However, soon after the Young Turks revolution of 1908, he withdrew from the Committee of Union and Progress. He fought at the front in the Turko-Italian War of 1911–12, in the Second Balkan War in 1913, and in World War I (1914–18). In 1916 he was promoted to the rank of general and received the title of pasha. In 1919 he led a national liberation movement in Anatolia. Under Atatürk’s leadership, a congress of the bourgeois-revolutionary Leagues for the Defense of Rights was held in Erzurum and Sivas in 1919, and on Apr. 23, 1920, the Great Turkish National Assembly was formed in Ankara and declared itself the supreme governing body. As president of the assembly and after September 1921 as supreme commander in chief as well, Atatürk led the armed forces in the national liberation war against the Anglo-Greek intervention. As a result of victory in the battles at the Sakarya River (Aug. 23-Sept. 13, 1921), the assembly conferred on him the rank of marshal and the title of ghazi. Under the command of Atatürk, the Turkish Army defeated the interventionists in 1922.

On Atatürk’s initiative, the sultanate was abolished on Nov. 1, 1922, and on Oct. 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The caliphate was eliminated on Mar. 3, 1924, and a number of progressive reforms of a bourgeois and national character were introduced in the areas of government and administrative structure, justice, culture, and mode of life. The People’s Party (after 1924, the Republican People’s Party), which Atatürk established in 1923 on the base of the Leagues for the Defense of Rights and of which Atatürk became lifetime chairman, opposed the reactionary attempts of feudal-clerical and comprador circles. In the area of foreign affairs, Atatürk aspired to maintain a friendly relationship between Turkey and Soviet Russia, which had rendered disinterested aid to the Turkish people in the years of their struggle against the imperialists and later during the development of their national economy.

WORKS

Nutuk, vols. i-3. Istanbul, 1934. (Russian edition: Put’ novoi Turtsii, vols. 1–4. Moscow, 1929–34.)
Atatürk’ ün söylev ve demeçleri, [vols.] 1–3. Ankara, 1945–59. (Russian abridged edition: Izbrannye rechi i vystupleniia.Edited and with an introduction by A. F. Miller. Moscow, 1966.)

V. I. SHPIL’KOVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He said Quiad-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan, described Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as one of the greatest men that ever lived.
He said Quiad-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan, described Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk as 'one of the greatest men that ever lived.'
"On behalf of the Government and people of Pakistan, I would like to convey my deepest admiration and respect for Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. "His glorious struggle and leadership for the independence and unity of the Turkish nation will forever remain a golden chapter in the annals of history
They reveal that Kemal Ataturk wasn't only an excellent politician.
Kemal Ataturk was the general in charge at Gallipoli, and for us to understand what a compassionate man he was part of the war memorial epitaph composed by him should be read: "Mothers who sent their sons from far away wipe away your tears your sons are now lying in our bosom and are at peace.
Erdogan set out four priorities for Turkey heading to 2023, when the country will celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the modern Turkish state by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the BBC concluded its report.
Anitkabir, the mausoleum that houses the remains of Turkey's first president Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, includes exhibits on the life of the national leader.
Together with Macedonian Culture Minister Elizabeta Kanceska-Milevska, the President of the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA), Serdar Cam, and Bitola Mayor Vladimir Taleski, he also promoted the refurbished Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Memorial Room at the Museum in Bitola.
A 59-year-old man from Paphos is in a serious condition after he was hit by a car on Wednesday night on the Kemal Ataturk road, police said.
Few political leaders have had as profound a role in shaping their country and its national vision as Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of modern Turkey.
After many years, Turkey is once again on the front pages of newspapers and the breaking news across the world as a sad story from the Orient, Erol Rizaov comments for Utrinski Vesnik and adds that Erdogan's democracy, the unfulfilled promise of Kemal Ataturk and the Eastern sin of Europe raised the upheaval on "Taksim".
He built a lot yet he also tore down the dam between religion and the secular order erected by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in the first decades of the 20th century.