The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



species of plants of the genera Trachomitum and Apocynum of the family Apocynaceae. They grow primarily in North America, Southern Europe, and Southeast Asia. In the USSR, kendyr is found in the floodlands of Middle Asia and in the deltas of the Volga, Ural, and other rivers. The perennial species Trachomitum venetum is a fiber-yielding herbaceous plant, with rhizomes which measure 10–15 cm thick and roots which serve reproductive and nutritive purposes. The buds that form the new shoots are located on the roots. The plant has five to ten branching, erect stems, measuring 1.0–1.5 m tall. The short-petiolar leaves are elongated or ovate-lanceolate. The small white, pink, or red-violet flowers are gathered in clusters at the apices of the stems. The follicular fruit is 8–20 cm long. The seeds are small, with silky, hairlike pappus; 1,000 seeds weigh 0.3–1.0 g.

Under natural conditions the species T. venetum reproduces vegetatively; it is less frequently propagated by seeds. The plants are fully developed in the third year. The stems contain up to 20–27 percent phloem, which is up to 10 percent fiber. The fiber, distinguished by great flexibility, durability, and resistance to decay, is used to make twine, fishing nets, and other items. Efforts to cultivate kendyr in the USSR have not been successful. The species Apocynum cannabinum is grown in the USSR as a medicinal plant; its roots and rhizome contain cardiac glycosides.


Berliand, S. S. Kendyr’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1931.
Berliand, S. S. Agrotekhnika kendyria. Moscow, 1950.
Kendyr’ konoplevyi. Moscow, 1953.
Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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