Kenesary Kasymov

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Kenesary Kasymov


Born 1802; died 1847. Sultan; khan of the Middle Horde in Kazakhstan after 1841; grandson of Khan Ablai.

From 1837 to 1847, Kenesary Kasymov headed a reactionary feudal-monarchical movement directed at separating Kazakhstan from Russia. He established a cruel despotic rule, burdened the people with excessive taxes, and mercilessly suppressed malcontents. In the struggle against Russia he relied on the khanates of Central Asia. The acceptance of Russian citizenship by Kazakhs in the 18th and early 19th century, despite the colonial policy of the tsarist regime, was a historically progressive phenomenon. The tsarist government gradually limited the power and privileges of the local feudal lords and sultan elite. This was one of the reasons for the emergence of feudal-monarchical movements in the 19th century, which aimed at the restoration of the authority of the khans. Kenesary Kasymov compelled many auls (villages) and families to join his movement by force of arms. The feudal lords were the social buttress of his movement. His closest relatives (brothers, nephews) with their feudal retinues formed the nucleus of his troops. Lacking the support of the people and pursued by tsarist troops, he fled south to the territory of the Great Horde in 1846. In 1847, Kenesary Kasymov carried out a campaign of plunder against the Kirghiz during which he was killed.


Istoriia Kazakhskoi SSR, vol. 1. Alma-Ata, 1957.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The chapter about the Kenesary Kasymov rebellion of 1837-47 argues that traditional clan leaders' resistance to a new type of centralized state proves that boundaries separating native and Cossack communities were not clearly demarcated.
"Kazak Resistance to Russian Colonization: Interpreting The Kenesary Kasymov Revolt, 1837-1847," Central Asian Survey 22, no 2-3, (2003): 231252.
In 2003-2005, special research groups came thereto search for the remains of Kenesary Kasymov (Kazakh sultan, 19 century), and we do not even know about the event itself," the public figure concluded.
Some elements of the past had to be avoided because they raised too many questions about the relations between Russians and other peoples--for example, the Turkic epics or the revolts led by Shamil in Daghestan, Kenesary Kasymov in Kazakhstan, or Ukraine's Cossack heroes--but ancient history did not have these troublesome implications and opened up a new field for the expression of non-Russian sentiment.
Russian chauvinism was now in the ascendant in official historiography, and the project immediately encountered political obstacles, especially the chapter on Kenesary Kasymov's armed struggle against the government of Nicholas I (1825-55).