keratinocyte

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keratinocyte

[kə′rat·ən·ə‚sīt]
(histology)
A specialized epidermal cell that synthesizes keratin.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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The polarity protein Par3 controls the mechanical properties of the main skin epithelial cells, called keratinocytes. It has functions that are conserved from worms and flies to mammals.
The process requires genes committed to the synthesis and the assemblage of the proteins that form the walls of the pre-melanosomes, the synthesis of the different tyrosinases, the chaperoning of tyrosinases to the pre-melanosome, and the transfer of the melanosomes to the keratinocytes. In healthy individuals, this process leads to constitutive pigmentation, the pigmentation that determines hair color and skin color in people, irrespective of solar radiation.
Besides keratinocytes, the epidermis contains melanocytes, localized in the basal layer and producing melanin, which are responsible for skin pigmentation and protect from ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Wang et al., 2016); Merkel cells, residing in the basal layer and contributing to mechano-sensory reception (Woo et al., 2015); and immature Langerhans cells in the suprabasal layers that provide the first line of immunological defense against infection (Seneschal et al., 2012).
During wound healing process, dermis fibroblasts are responsible for synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix collagen (Karimi et al., 2013; Dobosz et al., 2014) Keratinocytes strongly contribute to the modulation of dermal fibroblast collagen production and degradation.
There were numerous necrotic keratinocytes with overlying parakeratosis present in the epidermis.
HaCaT cells, human spontaneously immortalized keratinocytes with full epidermal differentiation capacity, have been widely used as an in vitro keratinocyte model (9,16).
Izpisua Belmonte and Kurita wanted to directly convert these other cells into basal keratinocytes -- without ever taking them out of the body.
STAT3 small interfering RNA carried by Lipofectamine 3000 combined with ultrasonic irradiation and SonoVue microbubbles inhibited the growth of psoriatic keratinocytes
The degeneration of the basal cell layer of the epithelium in lichenoid tissue reaction/interface dermatitis-stomatitis is a consequence of necrosis of basal keratinocytes characterized by rapid cytoplasmic swelling with breakdown of intracellular organelles and rupture of the cell membrane and/or of apoptosis of basal keratinocytes characterized by chromatin condensation at the nuclear membrane, compaction of intracellular organelles, and cell shrinkage forming apoptotic bodies.
The reasons for this are unclear but involve lack of oxygen reaching skin cells, delayed migration of keratinocytes, decreased collagen synthesis, and also delayed growth of new blood vessels within the wound.
The epidermis layer mainly consists of keratinocytes scattered with other cell types like melanocytes and Langerhans cells.