Keratitis


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Related to Keratitis: Fungal keratitis

keratitis

[‚ker·ə′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the cornea.

Keratitis

 

inflammation of the cornea of the eye.

Keratitis arises from certain external, predominantly infectious, factors (exogenic keratitis) or from common systemic diseases (endogenic keratitis). Keratitis may also be caused by mechanical, thermal, chemical, or radiation traumas, as well as certain types of vitamin deficiency. Keratitis is manifested by photophobia, epiphora, pain, and redness of the eye, by edema of the cornea and disruption of its transparency (development of an inflammatory infiltrate), and sometimes by loss of sensitivity of the cornea and the appearance of newly formed ingrown blood vessels. The duration and course of keratitis depends on the cause of the inflammation; with infectious keratitis it depends on the type and virulence of the microorganisms and also on the reactivity and condition of the body. Often as a result of keratitis there remain persistent opacities (cataracts), in some cases small and unobtrusive and in others large and intense, which are often the cause of a decrease in vision, especially if they are located in the central, contrapupillary portion of the cornea.

A distinction is made between surface keratites and deep keratitis. The most frequently encountered of the surface exogenic keratites are catarrhal keratitis, which develops from infectious conjunctivitis; herpetic keratitis, the result of viral affection of the eye; keratitis with epidemic adenoviral conjunctivitis; serpiginous corneal ulcer, a serious purulent disease usually caused by a pneumococcal infection and often arising after minor injury to the cornea (the entry of small foreign bodies or scratches); and keratitis with blennorrhea, diphtheria, or trachoma.

Most frequently encountered of the surface endogenic keratites is phlyctenular keratitis as a manifestation of an allergy in children and adolescents with tubercular intoxication; keratitis in this form is usually bilateral and tends to recur. The typical form of deep endogenic keratitis is parenchymatous keratitis with congenital syphilis; it is observed in children and adolescents, is as a rule bilateral, and is characterized by a prolonged course and diffuse infiltration of the cornea, often with ingrown blood vessels; vision, which decreases severely in the beginning, may subsequently improve substantially or even be restored with resorption of infiltrates. Deep keratitis with tuberculosis usually affects one eye and leaves intense opacity of the cornea.

Treatment of keratitis must be directed toward eliminating the cause of the disease; with infectious keratites antibiotics or sulfanilamides are used locally; with cataracts that substantially decrease vision surgical intervention (keratoplasty) is necessary.

REFERENCE

Barbel’, I. E. “Bolezni rogovoi obolochki.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po glaznym bolezniam, vol. 2, book 1. Moscow, 1960. (Bibliography.)

M. L. KRASNOV

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Study author Dr Nicole Carnt told OT that other studies in the US and New Zealand have also found a rise in acanthamoeba keratitis cases.
Acanthamoeba keratitis: the role of domestic tap water contamination in the United Kingdom.
According to Medicine net, Keratitis is defined as, "Inflammation of cornea that may result from infection, abrasion, trauma or some kind of underlying pathology like Sjogren's Syndrome or lupus ultimately leading to blindness"4.
Keratitis is an urgent problem requiring prompt diagnosis laboratory evaluation and appropriate therapeutic intervention.
We experienced significant reduction in size of giant papillae, gelatinous limbal infiltrate, conjunctival hyperemia and improvement in keratitis following supratarsal injection of triamcinolone acetonide.
Of the imaged eyes with clinical disease, the routine ophthalmologic examination findings, anterior segment photographs, and iVCM findings of 4 eyes with punctate epithelial keratitis, 4 eyes with deep corneal keratitis, and 4 eyes with subepithelial infiltration were evaluated.
The case-control study included 63 people with Acanthamoeba keratitis and 213 without.
A study in 2002 estimated the prevalence of Acanthamoeba keratitis in south east England to be 2.5 cases per 100,000 contact lens wearers, but it is currently two to three times higher, researchers from University College London (UCL) and Moorfields Eye Hospital said.
The global incidence of HSV keratitis is approximately 1.5 million, including 40,000 new cases of monocular visual impairment or blindness each year.
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- The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Oxervate (cenegermin-bkbj ophthalmic solution), a breakthrough therapy for neurotrophic keratitis, a rare and progressive eye disease that can lead to corneal scarring and vision loss, Italy-based Dompe said.
Biopharmaceutical company Dompe US Inc reported on Wednesday the receipt of approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the breakthrough therapy Oxervate for neurotrophic keratitis (NK), a rare and progressive eye disease that can lead to corneal scarring and vision loss.