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The kinetic energy imparted to charged particles in a unit mass of material by uncharged particles such as neutrons; it may be expressed as joules per kilogram or ergs per gram.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(ancient Egyptian, Inbu Amenemhet—“Walls of Amenemhet”), a Cushitic settlement south of the third cataract of the Nile, on its right bank (Sudan). Excavations conducted from 1913 to 1916 have revealed a settlement dating from the time of Egypt’s Middle Kingdom (20th-18th centuries B.C.), a necropolis of local rulers buried with their relatives and slaves (as many as 400 persons in one burial); and numerous remains of material culture and art, both of local and Egyptian origin. Kerma lost its importance after Cush was conquered by Egypt (by the 15th century B.C.).


Katsnel’son, I. S. “Problemy istoricheskogo razvitiia drevneishei Nubii.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1948, no. 2.
Reisner, G. A. Excavations at Kerma, vols. 1–2. Cambridge, 1923.
Hintze, F. “Das Kerma-Problem.” Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, 1964, vol. 91.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.