jet fuel

(redirected from Kerosene jet fuel)

jet fuel

[′jet ¦fyül]
(materials)
Special grade of kerosine with a flash point of 125°F (52°C), used for jet aircraft; may have methane or naphthene added to produce a 110°F (43°C) flash point, for military aircraft.

Jet Fuel

 

the fuel used in jet aircraft engines. The most common jet fuels are kerosine fractions obtained by straight-run distillation of low-sulfur and high-sulfur crude oils; examples of these fuels are the domestic jet fuels T-l (from low-sulphur crude oil) and TS-1 (from high-sulphur crude oil). Fuels with high thermal stability, such as the domestic fuel RT and the foreign fuels A, A-l, and B, are manufactured by hydrofining fractions derived from straight-run distillation. Other components used in the production of jet fuels are obtained by hydrocracking and the removal or conversion of mercaptans.

The most important properties of a jet fuel are its density and heat of combustion (see Table 1), which determine the flight range. A jet fuel should have high thermal stability, particularly if it is to be used in supersonic aircraft, where the temperature of the fuel in the tanks may exceed 150°-200°C. High thermal stability is attained by removing nonhydrocarbon impurities, such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, from the fuel, for instance, by hydrogenation. Such processing (seeREFINING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS) also ensures that the jet fuel will have low corrosiveness.

In order to improve the stability of refined fuels during storage, antioxidants (up to 24 mg/liter) and additives to deactivate metals (6 milliliters/liter) are used. Jet fuels contain dissolved water (up to 0.008–0.01 percent at normal temperatures), which can separate from the fuel as conditions change, causing electrochemical corrosion in the fuel system or the formation of ice crystals. For this reason, corrosion inhibitors (10–45 mg/liter) and deicing additives (0.1–0.3 percent by volume) are used. Other additives prevent the accumulation of static electricity and improve the wear-inhibiting qualities of the fuel.

Table 1. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of jet fuels manufactured in the USSR
CharacteristicGrade of fuel
T-1TS-1Thermally stable
RTT-6
*10,250 kilocalories/kg †10,300 kilocalories/kg
Density at 20°C (kg/m3)≥800≥775≥775≥840
Fractional composition:    
10% distilled at (°C)≤175°≤165°≤175°≤195°
98% distilled at (°C)≤280°≤250°≤280°≤315°
Minimum heat ofcombustion (kilojoules/kg) … .≥43,050*≥43,050*≥43,260†≥43,260†
Onset of crystallization (°C)≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°
Total sulfur content (%) .≤0.10≤0.25≤0.10≤0.05
Mercaotan sulfur content (%)≤0.005≤0.001

REFERENCES

Nefteprodukty. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966. Zrelov, V. N., and V. A. Piskunov. Reaktivnye dvigateli i toplivo. Moscow, 1968.
Zarubezhnye topliva, masla iprisadki. Edited by I. V. Rozhkov and B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1971.

I. V. ROZHKOV

jet fuel

Fuels designed for use in gas turbine engines.
References in periodicals archive ?
Initially he said the refinery will produce LPG petrol Kerosene jet fuel diesel furnace oil Pechoman Charcoal and other products from 20000 per day crude oil source added to him.
In July 2013, Slovenia's supply of energy commodities in general went up as 52% with Lignite and Brown Coal, 14% with Transport Diesel Oil, 12% with Coke Oven Coke, 10% with Other Petroleum Products, 6% with Kerosene Jet Fuel and 6% with Heavy Fuel Oil.
Hydrogen only produces water and a small amount of nitrogen as byproducts, instead of a litany of pollutants and greenhouse gases let off by burning kerosene jet fuel.
The initiative has seen more than 1,000 commercial flights between Hamburg and Frankfurt operated with a blend of 50% hydro-treated vegetable oil and kerosene jet fuel in one engine, while the other power plant was supplied with conventional kerosene.
Since Virgin Atlantic paved the way with a "proof of concept" biofuel powered flight in early 2008, a broad range of biofuels have been tested and verified which replicate the performance of conventional kerosene jet fuel.
Sebastien Remy, head of Airbus' alternative fuels programme, said GTL was better than traditional kerosene jet fuel because it did not deplete the world's oil supply, produced less emissions of pollutants and was virtually free of sulphur.
The Snapshots report gives an instant overview of the Italian refined products market and covers fuel oil, diesel oil, gasoline, kerosene jet fuel, LPG and others.
Compared with previous month we further noticed supply rise as 83% with Heating and Other Gasoil, 81% with Lignite and Brown Coal, 47 %with Kerosene Jet Fuel, and 24% with Coke Oven Coke.