jet fuel

(redirected from Kerosene-type jet fuel)

jet fuel

[′jet ¦fyül]
(materials)
Special grade of kerosine with a flash point of 125°F (52°C), used for jet aircraft; may have methane or naphthene added to produce a 110°F (43°C) flash point, for military aircraft.

Jet Fuel

 

the fuel used in jet aircraft engines. The most common jet fuels are kerosine fractions obtained by straight-run distillation of low-sulfur and high-sulfur crude oils; examples of these fuels are the domestic jet fuels T-l (from low-sulphur crude oil) and TS-1 (from high-sulphur crude oil). Fuels with high thermal stability, such as the domestic fuel RT and the foreign fuels A, A-l, and B, are manufactured by hydrofining fractions derived from straight-run distillation. Other components used in the production of jet fuels are obtained by hydrocracking and the removal or conversion of mercaptans.

The most important properties of a jet fuel are its density and heat of combustion (see Table 1), which determine the flight range. A jet fuel should have high thermal stability, particularly if it is to be used in supersonic aircraft, where the temperature of the fuel in the tanks may exceed 150°-200°C. High thermal stability is attained by removing nonhydrocarbon impurities, such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, from the fuel, for instance, by hydrogenation. Such processing (seeREFINING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS) also ensures that the jet fuel will have low corrosiveness.

In order to improve the stability of refined fuels during storage, antioxidants (up to 24 mg/liter) and additives to deactivate metals (6 milliliters/liter) are used. Jet fuels contain dissolved water (up to 0.008–0.01 percent at normal temperatures), which can separate from the fuel as conditions change, causing electrochemical corrosion in the fuel system or the formation of ice crystals. For this reason, corrosion inhibitors (10–45 mg/liter) and deicing additives (0.1–0.3 percent by volume) are used. Other additives prevent the accumulation of static electricity and improve the wear-inhibiting qualities of the fuel.

Table 1. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of jet fuels manufactured in the USSR
CharacteristicGrade of fuel
T-1TS-1Thermally stable
RTT-6
*10,250 kilocalories/kg †10,300 kilocalories/kg
Density at 20°C (kg/m3)≥800≥775≥775≥840
Fractional composition:    
10% distilled at (°C)≤175°≤165°≤175°≤195°
98% distilled at (°C)≤280°≤250°≤280°≤315°
Minimum heat ofcombustion (kilojoules/kg) … .≥43,050*≥43,050*≥43,260†≥43,260†
Onset of crystallization (°C)≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°
Total sulfur content (%) .≤0.10≤0.25≤0.10≤0.05
Mercaotan sulfur content (%)≤0.005≤0.001

REFERENCES

Nefteprodukty. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966. Zrelov, V. N., and V. A. Piskunov. Reaktivnye dvigateli i toplivo. Moscow, 1968.
Zarubezhnye topliva, masla iprisadki. Edited by I. V. Rozhkov and B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1971.

I. V. ROZHKOV

jet fuel

Fuels designed for use in gas turbine engines.
References in periodicals archive ?
JAL sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the 2-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel during the two month period of June and July 2019 averaged US$76.58 per barrel, which accounted for 8,282 yen in the average exchange rate of 108.14 JPY/USD during the same period.
JAL sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the 2-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel during the two month period of April and May 2019 averaged US$81.91 per barrel, which accounted for 9,073 yen in the average exchange rate of 110.77 JPY/USD during the same period.
Fuel surcharge levels are set by the carrier bimonthly based on the two-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. During the two month period of February and March 2012 the price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel averaged USD134.29 per barrel.
Motor gasoline accounted for 41 percent of the total; distillate fuel oil, 20 percent; and kerosene-type jet fuel, 8 percent.
JAL sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the 2-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel during the two month period of February and March 2019 averaged US$78.97 per barrel, which accounted for 8,749 yen in the average exchange rate of 110.79 JPY/USD during the same period.
JAL sets its fuel surcharge levels on a bimonthly basis based on the two-month average price of kerosene-type jet fuel. During the two month period of December and January 2012, the price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel averaged USD124.92 per barrel.
Motor gasoline accounted for 44 percent of the total; distillate fuel oil, 18 percent; and kerosene-type jet fuel, 8 percent.
JAL sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the 2-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel during the two month period of August and September 2018 averaged US$89.35 per barrel, which accounted for 9,956 yen in the average exchange rate of 111.43 JPY/USD during the same period.
The carrier sets its fuel surcharge levels bi-monthly, based on the two-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price for this type of fuel during the two month period of October and November 2011 averaged USD125.75 per barrel.
Kerosene-type jet fuel supplied in August 1998 averaged 1.5 million barrels per day, 2 percent lower than the previous month's rate and 7 percent lower than the August 1997 rate.
JAL sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the 2-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel. The price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel during the two month period of August and September 2017 averaged US$65.41 per barrel, which accounted for 7,213 yen in the average exchange rate of 110.28 JPY/USD during the same period.
The carrier sets fuel surcharge levels bimonthly based on the two-month average price of Singapore kerosene-type jet fuel.