a mountain range in the Tien-Shan. The western part of the Ketmen’ Range is located in the USSR while the eastern section lies in China. The range measures approximately 300 km long, and has a maximum elevation of 3,638 m (Mt. Nebesnaia). It is composed of effusive rocks and limestones; in some places there is granite. The summits of the mountains are flat; the slopes are steep and dissected by deep gorges. The lower part of the mountain range is covered with steppe vegetation, while higher up, on the northern slopes, there are spruce forests and meadows.
an ancient hoelike hand tool used in Middle Asia for hoeing and hilling plants and for digging and cleaning irrigation ditches and canals. It has a triangular steel plate with a sharp cutting edge set on a wooden handle.