By analyzing gene expression data, Cheng discovered that several enzymes involved in the production of ketone bodies
are more abundant in intestinal stem cells than in other types of cells.
(22) suggests ketone bodies
may act as signaling molecules to provide benefits to cardiovascular function by decreasing sympathetic tone and reducing HR.
Fast onset causes production of ketone bodies
faster and has advantages in determining what is behind the metabolic disorder.
as a therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease.
Mattson, "The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies
," Brain Research Reviews, vol.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is defined by the presence of blood glucose levels greater than 250 mg/dL, being this the main finding, associated with metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.3 and serum bicarbonate < 15 mEq/dL) with an increased anion gap and the presence of ketone bodies
in the blood and/or urine .
Last years' observations bring some information about beneficial effects of ketone bodies
on the CNS functioning in two most common degenerative diseases: Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease .
"This raises the possibility that, if in fact exercise benefits the brain, ketone bodies
may mediate some of that effect," Dr.
Some studies showed that mitochondrial complex I activity is decreased in ALS, and that ketone bodies
can restore the function of this complex.[sup]
Glycerol is used as a substrate for gluconeogenesis and the great amount of NEFA results in the production of ketone bodies
. The clearance of ketone bodies
is impaired due to low insulin concentrations, increased glucocorticoids, and decreased peripheral glucose utilization.
Additionally, high volume infusions of multiple fluids would have led to excess urinary loss of ketone bodies
necessary for bicarbonate production with insulin administration .
Alterations and related metabolic pathways were discussed, and it turned out that following metabolic pathways were involved in C[Cl.sub.4] induced liver damage and liver protective efficacy: betaine metabolism, synthesis of LDL/VLDL, gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, creatine metabolism, synthesis of ketone bodies
, amino acids metabolism, and [beta]-oxidation of fatty acids.