Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
acetonemia, a disease of cows and sheep characterized by metabolic disturbance (carbohydrate-fat and protein). Affected are highly productive cows in the second to sixth week of lactation and multiparous sheep one to two weeks before lambing. The principal cause of ketosis is a carbohydrate deficiency connected with a dietary imbalance with respect to carbohydrate and protein. High milk yield, multiparity, and lack of exercise predispose to ketosis.
In sheep, ketosis develops predominantly when feeding is inadequate and the body is forced to meet its demand for nutritive substances at the expense of deposited fat.
The affected animals suffer digestive disturbances (decrease or perversion of appetite and weakening of the peristaltic and secretory activities of the digestive glands) and show an increase in the number of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. There is a decrease in milk productivity and a loss of weight. Nervous disturbances (agitation, depression) and a disruption of liver function are also observed. If untreated, the disease usually ends in the death of the animal. Treatment involves proper diet, intravenous injection of glucose, and the use of hormonal preparations. Ketosis can be prevented by properly feeding and keeping the animals.
A. M. KOLESOV