the site of an ancient fortified town that flourished from the mid-first millennium B.C. through the third century A.D., in what is now Denau Raion, Sukhandar’ia Oblast, Uzbek SSR. Excavations, conducted between 1959 and 1963, revealed the ruins of a citadel (Karabag-Tepe), the city’s grid plan, and the remains of dwellings and estates. The palace of the first Kushans (first century B.C. to first century A.D.; seeKUSHANA KINGDOM), built in the style of Bactrian architecture, had a colonnaded iwan and a main hall decorated with wall paintings and painted clay sculpture, depicting court and battle scenes, festive processions, and various rulers.
REFERENCESPugachenkova, G. A. Khalchaian. Tashkent, 1966.
Pugachenkova, G. A. Skul’ptura Khalchaiana. Moscow, 1971.