Khalkidhikí


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Khalkidhikí

(khälkēthēkē`) or

Chalcidice

(kălsĭd`ĭsē), peninsula (1991 pop. 92,117), NE Greece, projecting into the Aegean Sea from SE Macedonia. Its southern extremity terminates in three peninsulas: Kassandra (anc. Gr. Pallene) in the west, Sithonia in the center, and AthosAthos
, Aktí
, or Akte
, easternmost of the three peninsulas of Khalkidhikí, c.130 sq mi (340 sq km), NE Greece, in Macedonia. The narrow, northern base of the peninsula was once cut by canal dug by the Persians during Xerxes' invasion of Greece
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 in the east. The region is largely mountainous, dry, and agricultural. Olive oil, wine, wheat, and tobacco are produced; magnesite is mined. In antiquity the peninsula was famous for its timber. OlynthusOlynthus
, ancient city of Greece, on the peninsula of Chalcidice (now Khalkidhikí), NE of Potidaea. A league of Chalcidic cities grew up in the late 5th cent. B.C., and Olynthus, as the head of this Chalcidian League, vigorously opposed the threats of Athens and Sparta.
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 and PotidaeaPotidaea
, ancient city, NE Greece, at the narrowest point of the Pallene (now Kassándra) peninsula in Chalcidice (now Khalkidhikí). It was a Corinthian colony (c.600 B.C.) but joined the Athenian-dominated Delian League.
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 were the chief towns in antiquity; Poliyiros is today the leading town and an administrative center. The peninsula was named for KhalkísKhalkís
or Chalcis
, city (1991 pop. 51,646), capital of Évvoia (Euboea) prefecture, E Greece, on the island of Évvoia. Connected to the mainland by a bridge, the city is a trade center for local products, including wine, cotton, and citrus fruits.
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, which established colonies there in the 8th and 7th cent. B.C. In the 4th cent. B.C. the peninsula was conquered by Philip II of Macedon, and in the 2d cent. B.C. by Rome. The subsequent history of Khalkidhikí is essentially that of ThessaloníkiThessaloníki
or Salonica
, also known as Thessalonike, Thessalonica, Salonika, and Saloniki, city (1991 pop. 383,967), capital of Thessaloníki prefecture, N Greece, in Macedonia; on the Gulf of Thessaloníki, an inlet of the Aegean Sea, at the neck
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.