(also khanega or khonako; in Persian, khangah; in Arabic, takiyah; among Islamic peoples of North Africa, zawi-yah), a Muslim hospice also usually serving as a dwelling for Sufi dervishes and as a center for the propagation of Sufism. The design of the khanaka was derived from the cells of Buddhist and Manichaean hermits. Khanakas eventually consisted of several buildings, sometimes arranged as those in a monastery, including cells, a mosque, a hall for the reading of the Koran, and the tomb of a patron.
Fortified khanakas were erected along caravan routes, for example, the Khanega on the Pirsagat River. Most consist of several structures grouped around a central domed hall or courtyard. Their layout, composition, and ornamentation reflect their geographic location and architectural period. Notable examples include the Khanaka of Faizabad in Bukhara (1598–99) and the Takiyah Sulaymaniyah in Damascus (1554).