Also found in: Wikipedia.
Khaqani خاقانی
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(full name, Afzal od-Din Badel Ebrahim ebn Ali Khaqani Shirvani). Born 1120 in Shemakha; died 1199 in Tabriz. Azerbaijani poet and thinker.

Khaqani, who studied the art of poetry under Abu al-Ala Ganjevi, achieved literary renown early in life and was invited to the court of the ruler of Shirvan, the khaqan. Although he wrote qasidas under the pen name “Khaqani” (literally, “belonging to the khaqan”), he essentially despised the role of panegyrist. On his way to Mecca in 1156, Khaqani traveled about the Middle East; upon his return to Shirvan he wrote a philosophic qasida on the ruins of the ancient capital of the Sassanids, al-Medain (Ctesiphon). He was captured in an attempt to leave Shirvan secretly and, on orders from Shah Akhsitan, was thrown into prison at Shabiran in 1159. After being released, Khaqani again set off on his journey; upon returning to his homeland he took up residence in Tabriz, where he spent the rest of his life.

Khaqani bequeathed a rich legacy in Persian and Arabic, most notably his lyric poetry. His lyrics, which are devoted to the theme of love imbued with moral beauty, express a striving for freedom and joy. Khaqani developed and enriched the ghazal and qasida. He broke new ground by creating works of a social and philosophic tenor, by expanding the thematic boundaries of traditional poetry, and by refining the technical resources of poetry. An important part of Khaqani’s divan are his qasidas, which expose the feudal rulers and register a protest against social injustice and the arbitrary use of power. The rebellious spirit of the poet and thinker is expressed with particular power in a habsiyah (jail ballad) written in prison.

The narrative poem Gift of the Two Iraqs (completed 1157), which protests against the unequal distribution of wealth, embodies Khaqani’s impressions of life in the Middle East and is one of the finest Middle Eastern epic poems. Highly autobiographical, it reflects the sociopolitical conditions of the age.

Scholars from the 13th century on have recognized Khaqani’s greatness as a poet and have pointed to his extensive influence on the poetry of the Middle East.


Diwan-i Khaqani Shirvani. Tehran, A.H. 1316 (A.D. 1937).
Tuhfat al-Araqayn. Tehran, A.H. 1333 (A.D. 1954).
Sechilmish äsärläri. Baku, 1956.
In Russian translation:
Izbr. proizv. Baku, 1959.
Lirika. Moscow, 1967.
[“Stikhi.”] In Poety Azerbaidzhana. Leningrad, 1970.


Zaleman, K. Chetverostishiia Khagani. St. Petersburg, 1875.
Bertel’s, E. Ocherk istoriipersidskoi literatury. Leningrad, 1928.
Boldyrev, A. N. “Dva shirvanskikh poeta—Nizami i Khagani.” In Pamiatniki epokhi Rustaveli. Leningrad, 1938.
Marr, Iu. Stat’i isoobshcheniia, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1939.
Istoriia persidskoi i tadzhikskoi literatury. Edited by Jan Rypka. Moscow, 1970. Pages 200–07.
Hammer, J. von. Geschichte der schónen Redekünste Persiens. Vienna, 1818.
Minorsky, V. Khagani and Andronicus Comnenus: Reprinted From the BSOAS. 1945.

M. GULIZADE [28–469–11

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Khaqani Almmamadov, head of the Karabakh Neolite-Eneolithic expedition at the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of ANAS assumes that this building is the remains of the ancient temple.
LAHORE -- The Lahore High Court (LHC) on Thursday rejected the appellate tribunal decision of disqualifying the former premier Shahid Khaqani Abbasi for life and stops him from contesting elections from NA-57 Murree.
Asks finance division to carry out selection process again according to criteria ISLAMABAD: Prime Minister Shahid Khaqani Abbasi on Wednesday rejected the names of candidates proposed by the finance ministry, to be posted as economic ministers abroad, due to nullifying the differentiating criteria during the shortlisting of the candidates, it was learnt reliably.
Later victory of Begum Kalsoom Nawaz in NA-120 Lahore election, and Khaqani's unconditional trust and support, became a big morale booster for Nawaz Sharif.
He said that IDPs returning process of Rabbia Khail, Dhanadazami, Khaqani Sheikha and Mamuzai tribes would be completed from Nov.
Glance on the world of Khaqani, 1st edition, Tehran, University press
In an age when people learnt Persian from childhood, and could appreciate the odes of Khaqani, it could not have been because of his Persianized diction that Ghalib could be told to his face that his verse was obscure.
Shaikh Isa Abdul Hamid Al Khaqani. The Booklet addresses the issue of conflicts within the Muslim community, reviewing a number of religious facts calling for the unity and cohesion as well as rejecting division.
"Titanium diboride and its composites can be synthesized through various methods such as combustive synthesis, direct oxidation of metal, mechanical alloying, pressure-free inoculation of metal, and so forth," Mohammad Ali Khaqani Dahaqani, one of the researchers of the study, told the Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council.
347), it is evident that he has covered essential sources, namely the Shahnama, Hudud al-'Alam, Balami's translation of al-Tabari, The Letter of Tansar, Qabusnama, Nizami's Iskandarnama, the poems of Khaqani of Sharvan, and the two major Persian histories of the Mongol period (see below).
His Khaqani Zij was a revision of al-Tusi's Ilkhani Zij and contained geographical and trigonometric tables independent of those found in Ulugh Beg's Zij.
Khaqani delivers the same eloquence in his dirge when he writes: "In the garden of my life sorrow is the gardener,/ no tree or bush is left, no rose, no tulip./On the threshing floor of time, from so much pain/ no ear or grain is left, no straws, no dust." Ubayd-I-Zakani enters a different garden when he notes: "He who built the heavens and made the stars/and fashioned mind and soul and made mankind/tied all the strings of being in a knot/then lost the thread of this cosmic tangle."