The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a family of Russian ethnographers, followers of the evolutionary school.

Nikolai Nikolaevich Kharuzin. Born 1865; died Mar. 25 (Apr. 7), 1900, in Moscow. In 1898, Kharuzin began teaching a course in ethnography—the first in Russia—at the University of Moscow and at the Lazarev Institute of Oriental Languages. From 1886 to 1896 he led expeditions to the Crimea, the Caucasus, Arkhangel’sk and Olonets provinces, the Baltic region, and Siberia. He systematized the ethnographic materials on Russia collected during the 18th and 19th centuries. His monograph The Russian Lapps (1890) is an example of the method that Kharuzin used—namely, the composite study of ethnographic data and of data from related disciplines. His most important works are on common law, family and tribal development, religious beliefs, and the history of human dwellings. Kharuzin’s lecture course was published in Ethnography (fases. 1–4, 1901–05).

Vera Nikolaevna Kharuzina. Born Sept. 17 (29), 1866, in Moscow; died May 17, 1931. The first woman in Russia to be appointed professor of ethnography. From 1907 to 1923, Kharuzina taught ethnography courses in Moscow, first at the Higher Courses for Women and Archaeological Institute, then at the university. With her brother N. N. Kharuzin, she did field work in Arkhangel’sk and Olonets provinces, the Altai, the Barabinskaia Steppe, the Baltic region, the Crimea, and the Caucasus. In her methodology, Kharuzina combined evolutionism with historical and geographical research. Her principal works are on religious beliefs and folklore; she wrote the textbook Introduction to Ethnography (1941).

Aleksei Nikolaevich Kharuzin. Born Feb. 29 (Mar. 12), 1864, in Moscow; died 1933. Known for his ethnographic, archaeological, and anthropological studies of the southern Slavs and the peoples of the Caucasus, the Crimea, and Kazakhstan.

Mikhail Nikolaevich Kharuzin. Born June 4 (16), 1860, in Moscow; died Sept. 25 (Oct. 7), 1888, in Tallinn; buried in Moscow. Known primarily for his research work on common law among the peoples of Russia.


Tokarev, S. A. Istoriia russkoi etnografii. Moscow, 1966. (Bibliography.)
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Persecution of those suspected of being jadids was in full swing, particularly in the villages of Kazan province around 1910.8 Curiously enough, the director of the Department of Religious Affairs, Aleksei Nikolaevich Kharuzin, who chaired the January conference, attended the February ceremony, too.
Tallinn: Tallinnskii kafedral'nyi sobor, 2000); Mikhail Nikolaevich Kharuzin, Estliandskaia sviatynia: Piukhtitsa, 15 avg.
Most notable in this regard is Nathaniel Knight's full-length portrait of the ethnographer Nikolai Kharuzin. The ethnographer's embrace of anthropological evolutionism was so complete that at the end of the piece the author puts it in the context of the Russian intelligentsia's quest for a total system of knowledge--yet Kharuzin had no use for the biological and racial determinism at the core of the evolutionary anthropology of his French mentors.
Nathaniel Knight's article, "Nikolai Kharuzin and the Quest for a Universal Human Science," explores the tension between the universal and the particular in Russian ethnography in the last quarter of the 19th century.
Its author, Nikolai Kharuzin, died in 1900 at the age of 34, leaving his sister, Vera Kharuzina, an accomplished writer and ethnographer in her own right, with the task of bringing the project to completion.
Between Pypin's detailed intellectual history of Russian scholarship and Kharuzin's survey of ethnography as an academic field there was little common ground.
The differences between Pypin and Kharuzin were by no means personal or even ideological.
Nikolai Kharuzin himself was the author of just such a study.
But by the 1890s, particularly for a young man with Kharuzin's talent and energy, a field that limited itself to the elucidation of the particular had little right to claim the mantle of science.
Nikolai Kharuzin's efforts to graft evolutionism onto the tradition of Russian ethnography raise a number of questions regarding the flow of scholarly ideas across the borders of nation-states and cultures.
Nikolai Kharuzin's background and upbringing prepared him well for a role as a cultural intermediary conveying the fruits of international scholarship to a Russian audience.