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the adherents of a Muslim sect. The Kharijite movement arose during a period of intense struggle for power within the caliphate—specifically, in A.D. 657, when some of the caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib’s soldiers (the descendants of nomadic Arab tribesmen) rebelled against the nobility’s increasing political dominance and its seizure of communal Muslim lands. These soldiers became known as Kharijis, or Kharijites. Although Ali broke up their movement in 658, their ranks continued to be replenished, mainly by members of the lower classes, including both Muslims from the Arab tribes and non-Arab converts to Islam. There were incessant Kharijite uprisings in the Basra and Kufa regions from 660 to 681.

The Kharijites called for equality among all Muslims, the preservation of communal land ownership, and the election of the caliph by the community; the community would have the right to depose the caliph, and any true Muslim was to be considered eligible to fill the office. As the result of a schism in 684, the Kharijites broke up into various subsects in the late seventh century—the Ibadiyah, or Ibadites, the Azariqah, and the Sufrites. While the Ibadites shunned armed struggle, rebellions by the Azariqites (and, beginning in 695, by the Sufrites) continued in Iraq and in Khuzestan until 697.

Increasing feudal oppression in the eighth century provoked uprisings by the Ibadites in southern Arabia and by other Kharijite sects in Persia and Iraq. In the mid-eighth century the Kharijite movement spread to the tribes of North Africa, leading to uprisings in Morocco and Ifriqiya (northeastern Africa); the various imamates founded by the Kharijites in North Africa, such as the Rustamid imamate in Tahart (modern Tiaret) and the imamate of Sijilmassa, were destroyed by the Fatimids in 909.

Members of the Ibadite branch of the Kharijites live in modern Oman, in several North African states, and in some of the other Arab countries.


Beliaev, E. A. Musul’manskoe sektantstvo. Moscow, 1957.
Churakov, M. V. “Kharidzhitskie vosstaniia v Magribe.” In the collection Palestinskii sbornik, fase. 7(70). Moscow-Leningrad, 1962.
Petrushevskii, I. P. Islam v Irane v VII-XV vv. Leningrad, 1966. (Bibliography.)


References in periodicals archive ?
FILE- Egyptians protest against the regime of the Muslim Brotherhood in 2013- Reuters CAIRO -- 30 June 2019: Under the title "Contemporary Khawarij in Demise, Home survives," Egypt's Ministry of Endowment has released a video-graphic on the sixth anniversary of June 30 Revolution, resembling the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood to the first group of political dissenters announced their disobedience and killed their leader in the Islamic history.
They denounced those who voted against him as khawarij, literally 'those who walk away' but frequently defined as 'the dogs of hellfire.'
He referred to these people as "khawarij" (enemies of Islam), including those who participated in the June 2013 revolt against then-Egyptian President Mohammed Morsi, who hailed from the Brotherhood.
After the brief period of cautious cooperation following Laskar Jihad's arrival in May 2000, Laskar Jihad started labelling JI, DI, NII and Mujahidin KOMPAK as khawarij (rebels).
'Khawarij (dissenters within the Islamic Community), so-called liberals and corrupt politicians have a nexus to strengthen 5GW designs against the country and it is the main reason behind the day to day problems being faced by the nation, ' he added.
It was during this period that derogatory labels against al-Baghdadi's organization first appeared, including Daesh (an Arabic acronym meant pejoratively because it signifies harshness) and Khawarij (after an extremist group that emerged during Islam's early days, described and condemned extensively in Islamic texts).
King Abdullah voiced pride and confidence in the Jordan Armed Forces-Arab Army and said: "We highly appreciate the efforts of the armed forces and the security services working day and night to safeguard our borders and protect the homeland and citizens, and there is nothing fear about our borders." The King also commended the professionalism and courage of servicemen and women and their sacrifices in countering terrorist Khawarij who pose a threat to the region and to the whole world.
"We will fight the Khawarij and strike at them without mercy and with all strength and determination," the monarch, a career soldier, was quoted as saying in a palace statement.
The MML also embraces several contentions of the deep state: India is an existential threat; the Pakistani army's role in the Saudi-Arabia-led Islamic Military Alliance in Yemen is a legitimate extension of Pakistan's interests; the army's internal security operations in the country are legitimate despite their enormous human and other costs; and the scourge of terrorism perpetrated by Khawarij (alternatively neo-Khawarij).
In this context, Paigham-i-Pakistan Fatwa given by the Ulema of all sects in Pakistan through consensus has declared that Jihad is the prerogative of the State only, as whenever the groups or the individuals tried to misuse the concept of Jihad, they were known to be Khawarij in Islam and were eliminated.
The number of voters has showed a great degree of national cohesion with bias towards the 3 July state, which represents the national project that conflicts with "Khawarij Al Asr" project (so-called kharijites of the time [fundamentalist opposition]) and the American project.
* Any Muslim who joins these KHAWARIJ (ISIS/ISIL) groups actually disconnects and disassociates himself/herself from the Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).