Khazars


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Khazars

(khä`zärz), ancient Turkic people who appeared in TranscaucasiaTranscaucasia
, transitional region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders, between the Black and Caspian seas. It comprises the Republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
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 in the 2d cent. A.D. and subsequently settled in the lower Volga region. They emerged as a force in the 7th cent. and rose to great power. The Khazar empire extended (8th–10th cent.) from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Urals and as far westward as Kiev. Itil, the Khazar capital in the Volga delta, was a great commercial center. The Khazars conquered the Volga Bulgars and the Crimea, levied tribute from the eastern Slavs, and warred with the Arabs, Persians, and Armenians. Religious tolerance was complete in the Khazar empire, which reached a relatively high degree of civilization. In the 8th cent. the Khazar nobility embraced Judaism, and Cyril and MethodiusCyril and Methodius, Saints
, d. 869 and 884, respectively, Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature. Their history and influence are obscured by conflicting legends.
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 made some Christian converts among them in the 9th cent. In the 10th cent. the Khazars entered into friendly relations with the Byzantine EmpireByzantine Empire,
successor state to the Roman Empire (see under Rome), also called Eastern Empire and East Roman Empire. It was named after Byzantium, which Emperor Constantine I rebuilt (A.D. 330) as Constantinople and made the capital of the entire Roman Empire.
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, which attempted to use them in the struggle against the Arabs. The Khazar empire fell when SviatoslavSviatoslav
or Svyatoslav
, d. 972, duke of Kiev (945–72), son of Igor and of St. Olga. His mother acted as regent for him until c.962, when he came of age.
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, duke of Kiev, defeated its army in 965. The Khazars (or Chazars) are believed by some to have been the ancestors of many East European Jews.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Khazars

 

a nomadic Turkic-speaking people who appeared in Eastern Europe in the fourth century, after the invasion of the Huns. In the 560’s, the Khazars were subjugated by the Turkic Kaganate. The Khazar Kaganate was formed in the mid-seventh century; after it fell, the Khazars intermingled with other nomadic Turkic peoples.

REFERENCE

Artamonov, M. I. Istoriia khazar. Leningrad, 1962.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
By seventh to eighth century, Khazars increasingly embraced Judaism.
Many of them had ancestors who'd come up from the Middle East, some from the semi-nomadic Khazars, others from Spain at the time of the Inquisition, and still others from elsewhere in Europe during the frequent expulsions.
The crucial period in centralising tribute collection by driving out the Khazars, taking over their role as tribute taker and their base in Kiev as well as increasing the regularity of their payment was the tenth century.
Living Souls contains a claim that "any interpretation of history is acceptable" because "all the sources have been falsified to some degree." The novel depicts Russian history as an ongoing struggle between two ethnic entities, the "Varangians" and the "Khazars" (although they do not have much in common with the Varangians and the Khazars, as modern historiography describes them).
The rise of the Khazars in the steppes north of the Caucasus is correctly placed in the aftermath of the implosion of the first trans-Eurasian empire, that of the Turks, around the year 630, the Khazars ultimately gaining the upper hand over the Bulgars in a struggle for regional pre-eminence in the steppes north of the Caspian, Caucasus, and Black Sea (by the 660s).
In particular, Adrijana Marcetic, in her insightful essay on Pavic's The Dictionary of the Khazars, explores the rectangular avenues of narratological inquiry (1).
In Soviet times dictator Josef Stalin banned any research into Itil and the Khazars, fearing it would prove Russia was descended from a Jewish state.
"We can now shed light on one of the most intriguing mysteries of that period - how the Khazars actually lived,=94 he added.
The other Europe in the Middle Ages; Avars, Bulgars, Khazars, and Cumans.
Comments, reviews, articles, and monographs on Milorad Pavic's Dictionary of the Khazars demonstrate a wide range of ways of approaching, understanding, and interpreting this fascinating, bewildering, and bewitching "Lexicon Novel in 100,000 Words." This novel acquaints the reader first of all with a kind of infinite book of the world or of nature, a kind of absolute book, as discussed and propagated by German romantic writers (F.
Khazaria, or mention of the Khazars, is a non-starter to most.
There really were Khazars, of Turkish stock, between the Caucasus and the Volga, the Black