Khiva


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Khiva

(khē`və, khēvä`), city (1989 pop. 40,001), S Uzbekistan, in the Khiva oasis and on the Amu Darya River. Industries include metalworking, cotton and silk spinning, wood carving, and carpetmaking. The city, in existence by the 6th cent., was the capital of the KhwarazmKhwarazm
or Khorezm
, ancient and medieval state of central Asia, situated in and around the basin of the lower Amu Darya River; now a region, NW Uzbekistan. Khwarazm is one of the oldest centers of civilization in central Asia.
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 (Khorezm) kingdom in the 7th and 8th cent. From the late 16th until the early 20th cent., Khiva was the capital of the khanate of the same name (see Khiva, khanate ofKhiva, khanate of,
former state of central Asia, based on the Khiva (Khwarazm or Khorezm) oasis along the Amu Darya River. The khanate lay S of the Aral Sea and included large areas of the Kyzyl Kum and Kara Kum deserts. Founded c.
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. The city was a significant trade and handicraft center in the late 18th and early 19th cent. It passed to Russia in 1873. It served as the capital of the Khorezm Soviet People's Republic from 1920 to 1923 and of the Khorezm SSR in 1923 and 1924. The ancient quarter of the city has been set aside to preserve such landmarks as an 18th-century fort, the khan's palace (now a museum), and a 19th-century mausoleum and minaret.

Khiva

 

a city under oblast jurisdiction and the administrative center of Khiva Raion, Khorezm Oblast, Uzbek SSR. Located in the Khorezm oasis, on the Palvan Canal, 30 km southwest of the Urgench railroad station on the Chardzhou-Beineu line. Population, 26,000 (1974).

According to archaeological data, Khiva was founded at the beginning of the Common Era. It was named for the ancient well of Kheivak and was called Khivak until the 18th century. In the early fourth century A.D., the city became part of Khwarazm. It was conquered by the Arabs in 712, by the Mongols in 1221, and by Tamerlane (Timur) in 1388. From the 16th century until 1921 it was the capital of the Khiva Khanate. In 1740, Khiva was destroyed by the ruler of Iran, Nadir Shah. In 1873 it was captured by Russian troops, and the Khiva Khanate, including the city, became a protectorate of the Russian Empire. In 1920 the city became the capital of the Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic. It has been a raion center in the Uzbek SSR since 1924 and has been part of Khorezm Oblast since 1938.

Khiva’s industries include cotton ginning and the production of ceramic ware, clothing, souvenirs, and rugs. The city has an agricultural technicum, a medical school, a pedagogical school, and a people’s amateur theater.

Khiva is a city-museum of the architecture of Khwarazm (mainly of the 19th and early 20th centuries). Its shahristan (urban center) of Ichan-Kala was declared an architectural preserve in 1968. In Ichan-Kala and the rabad (suburb) of Dishan-Kala are many noteworthy examples of architecture, including the citadel Kunia-Ark, which has 19th century structures, and the Djuma Mosque, which features carved wooden columns dating from the 11th through 19th centuries. Also worthy of note are the mausoleum of Seiyd-Allah-ud-Din (1303, with a majolica gravestone), the fortress gates, and ensembles of religious and secular buildings.

Of particular interest in these ensembles are the Tash-Khauli Palace (1830–38); the Nurullabai Palace (1904–12); the Allakuli Khan complex, which includes a madrasa (1834) and a market and caravansary (1830’s); and the Muhammad Amin Khan complex (1851–52) which includes a madrasa and the Kelte Minaret. Also noteworthy is the Pahlavan Mahmud Mausoleum, which is the resting place of the Kungrad khans and is located at the grave of Pahlavan Mahmud. The ensembles also contain numerous caravansaries, markets, and traditional dwellings (with carved wooden columns and doors and majolica facings).

Rugs are made in the city, and traditional crafts are practiced—including wood carving, copper relief work, and the making of pottery.

G. A. PUGACHENKOVA

Khiva is one of the tourist centers of the Uzbek SSR. Two tourist routes of nationwide importance run through it. The city has a tourist center.

REFERENCES

Khorezm: Kratkii spravochnik-putevoditel’, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1967.
Bulatova, V. A., and I. I. Notkin. Arkhitekturnye pamialniki Khivy. Tashkent, 1972. (Guidebook.)
Khiva. Leningrad, 1973. (Architectural photograph album.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Known for its sun-soaked countryside, vibrant fabrics, rich cuisine and the ancient Silk Road cities of Samarkand, Bukhara and Khiva, Uzbekistan is grappling with the challenges of modernization while maintaining stability.
A partir de entao, os vales da Asia Central foram divididos em tres canatos: "Bukhara (oasis de Zerafshan), Khiva (a jusante do Amur-Darya) e Khokand (Vale de Fergana)", (Gleason, 1997: 26).
This year reign supreme [Muhammad Shah's] appointed prince Ardeshir Mirza on behalf of the owner the government and went to discipline and punish the rebellious provinces of Gorgan and Yamoot and Googlansfrom court and after he arrived to Chaman Kalpoosh, the troops of Mansour Tarakema made Googlans and Yamoot to escape to Khiva and Gorganj.
Due to the lack of a popular base, no external support from the USSR (caused by domestic Soviet issues and Afghan intransigence over Khiva and Bukhara) and the lack of a powerful standing army, the imposition of Amanullah's reforms became an impossible task.
The nine essays examine such topics as Zarafshan Valley before the Soviets, the management of rural lands in Turkestan, irrigation concessions between Russia and Khiva in 1913, high rank and power among the northern Kirghiz, performance and poetics in Kyrgyz funeral feasts, reconstructing Turki-language letters, nomads in Bukhara, creating the fa?
Khokand, Khiva, Bukhara, Turkey, Iran, India, and Afghanistan were each in search of identity in the new political order.
After a short flight to Urgench, guests will stop in Khiva to explore the antiquities of Ichan Kala (Old City) and the Khiva Silk Carpet Workshop to watch apprentice carpet makers hand-weave silk rugs patterned after Khiva-style majolica tiles, doors and miniature paintings.
Maimana also had strong commercial links with Merv, Khiva, and Bukhara, all of which had fairly large Jewish populations.
Guests will take a sightseeing drive to Khiva, one of the three historical cities on the ancient trade route, to explore UzbekistanOs open-air museum of unparalleled examples of architecture.
Interestingly, on one hand, he pressurized Russians in context of returning of Afghan Territory, which Russia seized in 1885, (Magnus and Naby, 1998:45) while on the other, he kept his connection with Amirs of Bukhara and Khiva whose rebellion movements was against Bolshevik revolution.
Pilgrims on the Silk Road: A Muslim-Christian Encounter in Khiva.