Khmer Rouge

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Khmer Rouge

(kəmĕr` ro͞ozh), name given to native Cambodian Communists. Khmer Rouge soldiers, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, began a large-scale insurgency against government forces in 1970, quickly gaining control over more than two thirds of the country. The strength of the Khmer Rouge rose dramatically from around 3,000 in 1970 to more than 30,000 in 1973, enabling most of the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops to withdraw.

In 1975 the movement, led by Pol PotPol Pot,
1925–98, Cambodian political leader, originally named Saloth Sar. Paris-educated, and a Khmer Communist leader from 1960, he led Khmer Rouge guerrillas against the government of Lon Nol after 1970.
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, overthrew the Cambodian government, establishing "Democratic Kampuchea." The new government carried out a radical program of evacuating cities, closing schools and factories, and herding the population into collective farms. Intellectuals and skilled workers were assassinated, many Cham-Malays were killed, ethnic Vietnamese were deported or killed, and a total of perhaps as many as 1.5 million died, inclusive of starvation and forced marches. In 1979, after increasing tensions with Vietnam, Vietnamese troops invaded, aiding a rival Communist faction to depose the Khmer Rouge government. The Khmer Rouge, however, continued to field an army of c.30,000 near the Thai border and retained UN recognition as the official Cambodian government.

In 1982 the Khmer Rouge formed a coalition with former premier Norodom SihanoukSihanouk, Norodom
, 1922–2012, king of Cambodia (1941–55, 1993–2004), b. Phnom Penh. Sihanouk was educated in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) and Paris and was elected king by a royal council in 1941.
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 and non-Communist leader Son Sann. Khieu Samphan officially succeeded Pol Pot as head of the Khmer Rouge in 1985, but Pol Pot was believed to remain the real leader. All Cambodian factions signed (1991) a treaty calling for UN-supervised elections and disarming 70% of all forces. In 1992 the United Nations assumed the government's administrative functions, while the Khmer Rouge withdrew from the peace process and resumed fighting. The following year the Khmer Rouge rejected the results of the UN-run elections that brought a coalition government to Cambodia.

The guerrilla force lost about half to three quarters of its strength (3,000–4,000 soldiers) in a mass defection in 1996, and factional fighting within the Khmer Rouge in 1997 led to Pol Pot's ouster, trial, and imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. The group continued to disintegrate, and factional fighting resumed in 1998. Pol Pot died in April, Khieu Samphan surrendered in Dec., 1998, and by 1999 most members had defected, surrendered, or been captured.

A tribunal consisting of both Cambodian and international judges was established in 2006 to try former Khmer Rouge leaders, but the question of trial procedures and other issues delayed the filing of any charges until mid-2007. The first trial, of the former prison chief known as Duch, began in 2009; he was convicted in 2010. Other former leaders, including Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary, once foreign minister, were indicted later in 2010, and tried beginning in 2011. Ieng Sary died (2013) before the trial was completed. Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, party deputy secretary under Pol Pot, were convicted of crimes against humanity in 2014 and genocide in 2018; Nuon Chea died while appealing his convictions. Additional indictments were resisted by the government of Hun SenHun Sen
, 1952–, Cambodian political leader, premier of Cambodia (1985–93, 1998–; second premier, 1993–98). A member of the Khmer Rouge from 1970, he fled to Vietnam with Heng Samrin and other Communists in 1977.
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, who was himself a member of the Khmer Rouge.

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References in periodicals archive ?
Case 002 in the ECCC, commonly known as the Khmer Rouge tribunal, found Nuon Chea, the ultra-Maoist regime's 'Brother Number 2', and Khieu Samphan, its head of state, guilty of crimes against humanity and genocide and sentenced them to life in prison.
At this time, Cambodia's communist party, known as the Khmer Rouge or the Communist Party of Kampuchea, was an ally of Prince Sihanouk.
There had been debate for years among legal experts at to whether the killings by the Khmer Rouge constituted genocide, as by far the majority of their victims were fellow Cambodians.
Read more: Khmer Rouge genocide in the minds of Cambodian youth
Sothy, who became disabled after falling from a tree, said the government repeatedly told local residents that they were going to turn the area into a tourist haven, commemorating the homes and bases of former Khmer Rouge cadres and leaders as well as setting up stupas to remember the dead.
The tribunal, established in 2006, has so far convicted only one Khmer Rouge leader, Kaing Guek Eav, known as Duch, 70, who headed the notorious S-21 prison, and sentenced him to life in prison.
Although the tribunal's mandate covers only the Khmer Rouge's time in power, Duch's testimonies later this week are also expected to cover an earlier period before the Khmer Rouge takeover when he commanded a secret jail called M-13.
Hearings are scheduled this week to focus on M-13 prison, a secret centre which Duch ran from 1971 to 1975 during the Khmer Rouge insurgency against the then US-backed government.
He had found his purpose: "It was revolution." The nascent Khmer Rouge leadership returned to Cambodia and entered the jungle to study guerrilla warfare with the Vietnamese.
When Nesbitt arrived in Cambodia in November 1988, rice production, which by the end of the Khmer Rouge reign in 1979 had plummeted by 84 per cent in five years, was still abysmally low.
Pok Leakreasey, 30, a laboratory worker at the Institute of Technology and father of two, said he plans to make the products as a means of venting his anger and sadness over his suffering during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime, adding that it is a peaceful way to ''calm down'' his emotions.