(36) The independent Khanate of Khokand
, at an altitude of 1375 feet between Samarcand and Andijan, was annexed to Russia in 1875 and became known as Ferghana province.
In the 1860s, the khanates of Tashkent, Bokhara, Samarkand, Khiva and Khokand
became part of the Russian empire.
In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries Russia became the most important trading partner of the Central Asian khanates, namely Khiva, Bukhara, and Khokand. Their names are reasonably familiar to a wider public.
Cotton production created an economic boom in the Ferghana valley and Count Pahlen, who visited Khokand on his inspection tour undertaken in 1906-8, compared the building of its European quarter, dominated by 'cotton kings', to that of an American mining city.
But the Bolshevik Revolution caught his west-bound caravans at Khokand
, across the Russian border, and as his very considerable savings were all in Russian banks he lost everything.
At the time of the invasion of West Turkistan by the Russians in the 1850s, the Khokand
Khanate, the Khiva Khanate, and the Emirate of Bukhara ruled the lands that make up most of present-day Uzbekistan.