a breed of dairy cattle developed in the Kholmogorsk and Arkhangel’sk districts of Arkhangel’sk Province (now Arkhangel’sk Oblast) by improving local cattle that had long been bred in regions of the lower Severniaia Dvina River.
In the 18th and 19th centuries Kholmogorsk cattle were improved by crossbreeding with the Holstein-Friesian breed. The bulls weigh 800–900 kg (sometimes to 1,200 kg), and the cows 480–540 kg (sometimes to 700 kg). The coloration is usually white with black markings. Red-and-white, red, black, and white individuals also occur. The milk yield is 3,500–1,500 kg, with record yields greater than 10,000 kg. The milk contains 3.7–3.8 percent fat (at most, 5 percent). The cattle acclimatize readily, facilitating distribution in many regions of the USSR. The breed has been regionalized in northern and northeastern oblasts of the European RSFSR and in Siberia.
REFERENCESShaposhnikov, A. N. Kholmogorskii skol. Moscow, 1951.
Krupnyi rogatyi skot kholmogorskoi porody po dannym issledovanii 1937, 1947 i 1957 godov. Vologda, 1960.